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Bradford Hill criteria

[A. B. Hill (1897–1991), British medical statistician] A set of nine criteria used to determine the strength of an association between a disease and its supposed causative agent. They form ...

Legislation

Legislation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
7,673 words
Illustration(s):
1

...been transferred to the kings, who ruled through directives ( diagrammata ) that often took the form of a letter to the cities. The text of such a letter would be ratified by the assembly of the citizenry and inscribed in stone as law (these texts have been collected by Bradford Welles ). In addition to general diagrammata , a king could also issue a specific decree in the form of a prostagma . Numerous examples from Ptolemaic times have been preserved in Egyptian papyri (and collected by Marie-Thérèse Lenger ). Even in their native Greece, the...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Everett Emerson, Gary Ashwill, Gordon Hutner, Thomas H. Schaub, and Erin A. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...belles lettres. The writers of colonial America generally identified as most important to literature are William Bradford (1590–1657), Anne Bradstreet, Edward Taylor (c. 1644–1729), William Byrd II, Jonathan Edwards, Benjamin Franklin, and J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, with others placed at a somewhat lower level: Cotton Mather, the African American poet Phillis Wheatley, and Captain John Smith, who is now recognized as a credible writer. Bradford's well-crafted history of the Plymouth colony (written c. 1630–1650) enjoys a preeminent place because of its...

History of Evidence-Based Practice

History of Evidence-Based Practice   Reference library

Scott O. Lilienfeld and Candice Basterfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
13,615 words

...were blindfolded and asked which cigarette brand they preferred ( Meldrum, 2000 ). A second randomized blinded controlled trial was carried out by the MRC to evaluate streptomycin for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. The British statistician and epidemiologist Austin Bradford Hill ( 1897–1991 ) is credited with designing the trial. He replaced alternation with randomization to better disguise the allocation schedule from patients and experimenters. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients were assigned to the streptomycin treatment group and a no-treatment...

Housing Policy across the United States

Housing Policy across the United States   Reference library

Kristin M. Szylvian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,698 words

...J. P. Sandal , and Katherine Solomonson , eds. Making Suburbia: New Histories of Everyday America . Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2015. Hayden, Dolores . Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth . New York: Pantheon Books, 2003. Hunt, D. Bradford . Blueprint for Disaster: The Unraveling of Chicago Public Housing . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Immergluck, Daniel . Foreclosed: High-Risk Lending, Deregulation, and the Undermining of America’s Home Mortgage Market . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009...

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