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Catherine Bernard

(1663–1712?), French novelist, playwright, and poet. Born in Rouen to a comfortable Huguenot family, she moved to Paris to pursue her literary interests. Bernard wrote four ...

Offerings

Offerings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,238 words

...Becker, Marshall Joseph . “Caches as Burials; Burials as Caches: The Meaning of Ritual Deposits among the Classic Period Lowland Maya.” In Recent Studies in Pre-Columbian Archaeology , edited by N. J. Saunders and O. de Montmoullin , pp. 117–142. Oxford, 1988. Calligéris, Catherine . “Fonction et signification des dépôts de fondation mayas, dans les Basses Terres, à la période Classique.” Dissertation, Université de Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne. Coe, William R. “Caches and Offertory Practices of the Maya Lowlands.” In Handbook of Middle American Indians ,...

Temple Complexes

Temple Complexes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,688 words

...6–15. Miller, Mary Ellen , and Karl Taube . An Illustrated Dictionary of The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya . London, 1993. Millon, René . “Teotihuacan Studies: From 1950 to 1990 and Beyond.” In Art, Ideology, and the City of Teotihuacan , edited by Janet Catherine Berlo , pp. 339–429. Washington, D.C., 1992. Millon, René . “The Place Where Time Began: An Archaeologist's Interpretation of What Happened in Teotihuacan History.” In Teotihuacan: Art from the City of the Gods , edited by Kathleen Berrin and Esther Pasztory , pp. 16–43....

Tollan

Tollan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,536 words

...of Tula . Norman, Okla., 1977. Davies, Nigel . The Toltec Heritage . Norman, Okla., 1980. Standard popular works on Tula and the Toltec tradition. Diehl, Richard , and Catherine Berlo . Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, a.d. 700–900. Washington, D.C., 1989. Includes basic archaeological data on Tula Hidalgo. Graulich, Michel . Myths of Ancient Mexico . Translated by Bernard R. Ortíz de Montellano and Thelma Ortíz de Montellano . Norman, Okla., 1997. Thorough examination of the “historical” Tula, from a structuralist viewpoint; reviews...

Gender Studies

Gender Studies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,083 words

..., edited by Virginia E. Miller , pp. 179–204. Lanham, Md., 1988. Brown, Betty Ann . “Seen but Not Heard: Women in Aztec Ritual—the Sahagún Texts.” In Text and Image in Pre-Columbian Art: Essays on the Interrelationship of the Verbal and Visual Arts , edited by Janet Catherine Berlo , pp. 119–153. Oxford, 1983. Brumfiel, Elizabeth . “Weaving and Cooking: Women's Production in Aztec Mexico.” In Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory , edited by Joan M. Gero and Margaret W. Conkey , pp. 224–251. Cambridge, Mass., 1991. Burkhart, Louise . “...

Mediterranean lands in the Middle Ages

Mediterranean lands in the Middle Ages   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,611 words

...social mix, particularly in the circles of the royal court , the aristocracy, and the major towns. A small group of black African servants, including ‘Peter the Moorish drummer’, occur among the court staff of James IV . In 1520 a pardoner monk from the monastery of St Catherine at Mount Sinai, in the Levant, visited Edinburgh . Such may seem very exotic figures to modern eyes, but were perhaps less so to their acquaintances and neighbours. One Greek‐speaking arrival deserves note, since his career was carefully disentangled by Monsignor David...

Concert music

Concert music   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,006 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Church of Park Manor. Throughout her life Jackson was an active participant in her family’s Jacksonian Community Center, which offered young people music and dance lessons, education, and spiritual training. Along with her mother, Gertrude Jackson Taylor , and sister, Catherine Jackson Adams , she toured the country and performed in Chicago public schools as a member of the Jacksonian Trio and the Imperial Opera Company. Marie Lucas ( c. 1880-1947 ) was a musician and society orchestra conductor and organizer. Lucas was born in Denver, Colorado , to...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Everett Emerson, Gary Ashwill, Gordon Hutner, and Thomas H. Schaub

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
8,512 words

...of, Indian culture. Drawing on this newer material as well as the long-standing conventions of captivity and Indian-fighting narratives, Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales were only the best-known of the “frontier romances,” which also included Child's Hobomok ( 1824 ), Catherine Sedgwick's Hope Leslie ( 1827 ), and Robert Montgomery Bird's Nick of the Woods ( 1837 ). The new popular press thrived on frontier adventure, from the Davy Crockett almanacs and story papers of the thirties and forties to the first dime novel, Ann S. Stephens's Malaeska ...

Valentine, Alfred “Alf” Lewis

Valentine, Alfred “Alf” Lewis (1930–2004)   Reference library

Julian Cresser

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
781 words

...equality on the cricket field that mirrored rising nationalist movements off of it. Valentine’s first formal exposure to cricket was at school in Spanish Town, St. Catherine, and his game developed further when he left school and became an apprentice on the Bernard Lodge Sugar Estate. At the time, a number of the island’s sugar estates were instrumental in developing the sport, and at Bernard Lodge, near Spanish Town, Valentine was noticed by George Mudie, a senior Jamaican cricketer, and Jack Mercer, an English county cricketer who had been contracted to...

Franklin, Benjamin

Franklin, Benjamin (1706–90)   Reference library

E. Philip Krider

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... (New York, 2009). Bell, Whitfield J., Jr. Patriot Improvers: Biographical Sketches of Members of the American Philosophical Society , 3 vols (Philadelphia, 2006–10). Bowen, Catherine Drinker . The Most Dangerous Man in America: Scenes From the Life of Benjamin Franklin (Boston, 1974). Clark, Ronald W. Benjamin Franklin: A Biography (New York, 1983). Cohen, I. Bernard . Benjamin Franklin’s Science (Cambridge, MA, 1990). Devons, Samuel . “Benjamin Franklin as Experimental Philosopher,” American Journal of Physics 45 (1977): 1148–53. Dray, Philip...

American Revolution

American Revolution   Reference library

Edward Countryman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...personality and property into her husband’s. In response, both sides of the English-speaking Atlantic generated articulate women who questioned the terms of their subordination in Enlightenment language. The most notable Britons were the historian and educational reformer Catherine Macaulay and Mary Wollstonecraft, whose A Vindication of the Rights of Woman ( 1792 ) argued strongly that women were as capable of high thought and civic virtue as any man. She gained a wide American readership. Their American counterparts included, particularly, Judith Sargent...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Everett Emerson, Gary Ashwill, Gordon Hutner, Thomas H. Schaub, and Erin A. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of, Indian culture. Drawing on this newer material as well as the long-standing conventions of captivity and Indian-fighting narratives, Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales were only the best known of the “frontier romances,” which also included Child's Hobomok ( 1824 ), Catherine Sedgwick's Hope Leslie ( 1827 ), and Robert Montgomery Bird's Nick of the Woods ( 1837 ). The new popular press thrived on frontier adventure, from the Davy Crockett almanacs and story papers of the 1930s and 1940s to the first dime novel, Ann S. Stephens's Malaeska (...

Colonial History and Historiography

Colonial History and Historiography   Reference library

Marie-Albane de Suremain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,592 words

...2008. Enders, Armelle . Histoire de L’Afrique Lusophone . Paris: Chandeigne, 1994. Hall, Catherine . Cultures of Empire: A Reader; Colonizers in Britain and the Empire in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries . Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2000. Hopkins, Anthony G. Globalization in World History . New York: W. W. Norton, 2002. Parry, Benita . Postcolonial Studies: A Materialist Critique . London: Routledge, 2004. Porter, Bernard . The Absent-Minded Imperialists: Empire, Society and Culture in Britain . Oxford: Oxford...

The Bantu Expansion

The Bantu Expansion   Reference library

Koen Bostoen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 35. Bernard Clist , “Vers une réduction des préjugés et la fonte des antagonismes: Un bilan de l’expansion de la métallurgie du fer en Afrique sub-saharienne,” Journal of African Archaeology 10, no. 1 (2012): 71–84; “Mais où se sont taillées nos pierres en Afrique Centrale entre 7.000 et 2.000 BP,” in Grundlegungen: Beiträge zur europäischen und afrikanischen Archäologie für Manfred K.H. Eggert , ed. Hans-Peter Wotzka (Tübingen, Germany: Francke Attempto, 2006), 291–302; Oslisly et al., “Climatic and Cultural Changes”; Bernard Clist , “Our...

Early African Pasts: Sources, Interpretations, Meanings

Early African Pasts: Sources, Interpretations, Meanings   Reference library

David Schoenbrun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
20,354 words
Illustration(s):
5

...particularly rich; see David Lewis Williams, The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 2002); Augustin Holl, Saharan Rock Art: Archaeology of Tassilian Pastoralist Iconography (Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2004); and Catherine Namono, Catherine, “Resolving the Authorship of the Geometric Rock Art of Uganda,” Journal of African Archaeology 8 (2010): 239–257 . 52. The scholar-traveler Ibn Battuta’s writings are famous in this genre; see Ross E. Dunn, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the...

Migration History and Historiography

Migration History and Historiography   Reference library

Benedetta Rossi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
16,419 words

...served political and economic ends. 109 Immanuel Wallerstein observed that, as an economic and political strategy, immigrants were forming ethno-professional communities in their new context, and that this process was a step toward the development of class consciousness. 110 Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch also saw the growing mass of migrant labor as “a ‘working class’ in the making.” 111 Richard Roberts and others, however, objected that the division between urban workers and rural-to-urban migrants hindered the development of class-consciousness. 112 There has...

Atlantic Slavery and the Slave Trade: History and Historiography

Atlantic Slavery and the Slave Trade: History and Historiography   Reference library

Daniel B. Domingues da Silva and Philip Misevich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
15,685 words

...of the dynamics of the plantation enterprise. Social relations within plantation households commanded particular attention. Some scholars emphasized bonds between black and white women whose lives, they argued, were conditioned by a shared and oppressive patriarchal culture. Catherine Clinton, for example, characterized white mistresses as “trapped” within plantation society. “Cotton was King, white men ruled, and both white women and slaves served the same master,” she argued. 67 While she sympathized with the plight of plantation mistresses, Elizabeth...

Archaeological Methods and Sources

Archaeological Methods and Sources   Reference library

Peter Mitchell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,472 words

...and the Nyau Secret Society of Central Malawi and Eastern Zambia,” African Archaeological Review 18 (2001): 187–212; and Leslie Zubieta, The Rock Art of Mwana wa Chentcherere II Rock Shelter, Malawi (Leiden, The Netherlands: African Studies Centre, 2006). On Uganda, see Catherine Namono, “Soaring Spirits: Rock Art, Initiation and the Sor Secret Society of Spirit Mediums of Karamoja, Uganda,” Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 52 (2017): 283–304. On Kenya/Tanzania, see Richard Gramly, “Meat-Feasting Sites and Cattle Brands: Patterns of...

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