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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,519 words

...agenda. Australia only slowly sought legal independence from Britain. Authority was increasingly delegated to governors and parliaments in Australia throughout the nineteenth century, although the British monarch and parliament possessed the theoretical legal power to rule Australia until 1986 when the U.K. Australia Act was proclaimed. Australia did not begin to assume independence in foreign affairs until 1917 and did not adopt the 1931 U.K. Statute of Westminster until 1942 . Elizabeth II , the queen of England, is also queen of Australia and is...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Judith Brett

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
776 words

...interpretation and because of the commonwealth's financial dominance. Although the Australian federal system is unsupported by marked regional or ethnic differences, it is deeply embedded in Australia's political institutions. The Commonwealth of Australia also includes the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory, which is the location of Canberra, the federal capital. Since 1910 the Australian party system has been dominated by three parties: the Australian Labor Party, formed in the 1890s as the political wing of the trade union movement; a...

Indonesia–Australia

Indonesia–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,031 words

...Australia from the mid-1960s. Most significantly, there was a change in direction in Australian foreign policy towards more engagement with Asia as Cold War imperatives lessened and the White Australia Policy was gradually dismantled. Indonesia also became a significant target for Australian aid programs. By 1970 the only country to which Australia allocated more aid was Papua New Guinea; by the time the Whitlam government was elected in December 1972 , two Australian prime ministers had visited Indonesia and President Suharto had visited Australia....

USA–Australia

USA–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,985 words

...copied in Australia. If Inglis Clark had had his way, most of the British traditions that Australians were familiar with in 1901 would have been abandoned and Australia would have emerged as a republic. But the mood in Australia at the beginning of the twentieth century was against this. Unlike eighteenth-century Americans, Australia's founding generation was not rebellious and they thought of themselves as British, showing allegiance to the Queen. Even so, thanks to Inglis Clark and others who admired the American Federation , the Australian political...

Canada–Australia

Canada–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,514 words

...When war began in 1939 , Australia's only official postings were in London. Australia and Canada finally established direct and official relations in the early days of World War II : Charles Burchell arrived as high commissioner in Canberra in December 1939 ; Major-General Sir William Glasgow went to Ottawa in March 1940 . Even though Australian and Canadian governments now agreed on the necessity of developing individual external relations and policies, their wartime relations were not especially harmonious. Australia was dismayed that Canada sent...

Europe–Australia

Europe–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,164 words

...Australia Australia–Europe relations began with European settlement more than 200 years ago, by mainly British and Irish settlers and convicts, and developed as Australia's immigrant communities arrived from the rest of Europe. Australia's longstanding connections with Europe—of population settlement and Immigration ; constitutional and cultural links; Trade and diplomacy—are dominated by the link with the United Kingdom ( see Britain–Australia ). The British link is based on past colonial status, the fact that Australia's institutions and traditions...

Australia Acts

Australia Acts   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
321 words

... Acts In 1986 the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Australia parliaments each enacted a statute called the Australia Act 1986 . The two Acts, whose provisions are almost identical, terminated the vestiges of legislative, executive and judicial authority with respect to Australian law that were still possessed by British institutions while leaving the role of the Queen, in her capacity as the Queen of Australia, unchanged. Their most important provisions terminated the legislative authority of the United Kingdom parliament to change Australian law,...

Japan–Australia

Japan–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,778 words

...of Australia's international trade in the region. Japan itself built a thriving economy based on light industries. Japan's entry into World War II triggered a historic realignment of Australia's geopolitical security arrangements. The defeat of Australia's long-term protector the United Kingdom in the fall of Singapore led to Prime Minister Curtin 's declaration of a new security relationship with the USA—a relationship whose primacy in Australia's security planning continues today, underlying all Australia's contemporary security policies and...

India–Australia

India–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,215 words

...Australia Relations between India and Australia re-emerged as a major economic and strategic concern during the 1980s and 1990s, when Australia became more involved in the Asian region. This development harkened back to the early years of white settlement in Australia, when the southern colonies were an integral part of Asian commerce. According to Geoffrey Blainey's Tyranny of Distance ( 1966 ), the great distance between Australia and England meant that Australia became an economic satellite of India in the late eighteenth century; Bengal provided the...

China–Australia

China–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,062 words

...Australia's largest-ever single trade deal. As a major supplier of iron ore and other minerals, Australia contributed significantly to China's industrial growth. Australian aid to China grew in significance, engaging more Australians in more activities than any other Australian China-related government activity. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, China's main export commodities to Australia included clothing, toys, games and sporting goods, footwear, and electronic and telecommunications equipment. Thus the focus of China's imports from Australia...

Russia–Australia

Russia–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,060 words

...Australia Australia's relationship with Russia has historically been characterised by apprehension and mistrust. This emerged first in the colonial era, when a fledging Australian society feared it was a logical target of expansionist European and Asian empires, and was then sustained by the Russian Revolution. The two nations were allies during World War II , but the rapid onset of Cold War confrontation helped to perpetuate an Australian sense of wariness about Russia's ‘Soviet experiment’, regarded as alien to Australia's liberal democratic...

Britain–Australia

Britain–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,925 words

...Asia bred in Australians a distinctive view of their own defence and security interests ( see Asia–Australia ). Thus when the two worlds of sentiment and self-interest occasionally collided‐most often when Britain failed to understand and sympathise with Australian's Pacific-centred view of the Empire, or when the logic of British self-interest clashed with Australian's idea of imperial unity‐Australians did not hesitate to express their frustration at perceived British indifference. But so deep ran the British currents in Australian thought and outlook...

Australia Party

Australia Party   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
299 words

... Party The Australia Party ( AP ) was a significant minor party in the 1960s and 1970s. Its second preferences were important for the Australian Labor Party ( see ALP ) in several seats in the federal elections of 1972 and 1974 . Eventually many of its members became one of the components of the Australian Democrats in 1977 . The main figure in the party was its founder and first national convener, the Sydney businessman Gordon Barton, and it briefly had as its parliamentary leader Senator Reg Turnbull from Tasmania. Others associated with the...

Western Australia

Western Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,303 words

...Australia Founded in 1829 as the Swan River Colony, Western Australia is the third-oldest British-settler political community in Australia. The colony's slow development in its early years meant that, whereas the other Australian colonies had gained self-government by 1860 , Western Australia did not reach that milestone until 1889 . However, Western Australian prospects took an upward turn from the gold rush of the 1890s. In the twentieth century, the population of the state grew at almost twice the rate of Australia as a whole and economic...

South Australia

South Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,083 words

...Australia South Australia is one of the six states within the Australian Federation. It was proclaimed as a British colony in 1836 and was granted colonial self-government in 1856 . It joined with the other five Australian colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 . The state's current borders date from 1911 , when what is now the Northern Territory was excised. Except for being subject since 1901 to the Australian Constitution , the basic structure of South Australia's governmental system has changed little since the colonial period....

Asia–Australia (history)

Asia–Australia (history)   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,712 words

...for a Regional Identity Dobell, Graeme (2000), Australia Finds Home: The Choices and Chances of an Asia–Pacific Journey Legge, J. D. (1999), Australian Outlook: A History of the Australian Institute of International Affairs Garnaut, Ross (2001), Social Democracy in Australia's Asian Future Tweedie, Sandra (1994), Trading Partners: Australia and Asia 1790–1993 Walker, David (1999), Anxious Nation: Australia and the Rise of Asia...

New Zealand–Australia

New Zealand–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,007 words

...on Australian pensions and other welfare entitlements, the Australian government has sought and secured annual compensatory payments from the New Zealand government. More sophisticated economic analysis suggests that Australia may be a net winner from the mutual migration policy, given the economic and tax‐paying contribution of New Zealand–educated migrants. New Zealanders contribute to the ‘brain‐gain’ of professional migrants who help to balance the ‘brain‐drain’ of Australians to North America and Europe. Another issue of concern for Australia has been...

White Australia Policy

White Australia Policy   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,279 words

...alongside the ingrained hostility of Australian settlers towards Indigenous Australians, the Aboriginal people. Underlying this racialism was the insistence on racial and cultural homogeneity as a defining element in shaping a sense of Australian identity. Importantly, this was to become a significant factor in determining the kind of society a future Australian nation would embrace. According to Alfred Deakin , one of the leading figures in the movement for establishing an Australian Federation, ‘the unity of Australia was nothing if that did not imply a...

Asia–Australia (approaches)

Asia–Australia (approaches)   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,950 words

...dominated Australian relations with Asia. In fact Burke ( 2001 ) has noted that this view of Asia as a security threat is an enduring theme that has come to dominate the conduct of Australia's relations with Asia, especially in the Cold War period. To place this particular motif of Australia and Asia in context we need to recognise that World War II ‐in particular the Pacific War with Japan‐played a pivotal role in shaping Australia's engagement with the region and its view of the world. First, the World War led to a reorientation of Australian foreign and...

Chinese in Australia

Chinese in Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,023 words

...The political role of Chinese during the early implementation of white Australia was largely protective and was led by a small number with British citizenship, such as Louis Ah Mouy . These lobbied politicians against some aspects of the new policy, but with little effect. The more recent political role of Chinese Australians has also been relatively low key. Until the communist government was recognised by Australia in 1972 few would identify with it ( see China–Australia ). Attitudes towards China have changed remarkably since then and many strong...

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