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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
126 words

... The world’s sixth-largest country by area, including Tasmania and many smaller islands adjacent to the Australian mainland. A former British colony, Australia has been an independent nation state since 1901. Today it is a multiethnic, multilingual society, though English remains the official language. In recent years Australia has begun to recognize the historic rights of aboriginal peoples to territory, resources, and cultural artefacts that were taken away from them by British and Dutch settlers from the 17th century. Australia’s 23 million...

environmental economics

environmental economics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...economics ‘Understanding why environmental issues exist, identifying them if it is worth remedying the situation, and developing solutions’ ( Rolfe (2008) Australian J. Agric. & Resources Econ. 52, 1...

aborigine

aborigine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A member of an indigenous people existing in a land before invasion or colonization from outside. For Canadian aboriginal peoples, see Atlas of Urban Original Peoples ; for Australian, the Aboriginal Environments Research Centre, U. Adelaide; for Bolivian, Denevan (1966) Nat. Tech. Info. Service...

barrier reef

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...reef A coral reef , stretching along a line parallel with the coastline but separated from it by a wide, deep lagoon , the most famous of which is the Great Barrier Reef off north-west Australia (see D. Hopley et al....

binary distribution

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...distribution A city-size distribution in which a number of settlements of similar size dominate the upper end of the hierarchy, said to be characteristic of nations with a federal political structure, such as Australia. See also rank-size rule...

faunal realms

faunal realms   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... palearctic (extra-tropical Asia, Europe, and North Africa). The neotropical realm covers Central and South America; the Ethiopian Africa south of the Sahara and Arabia. The oriental realm is tropical Asia, with an ill-defined boundary between it and the Australian realm (New Zealand, Australia, Oceania, and some of South-East Asia). See Smith (2004) Complexity 10, 2 for an evolutionary understanding of faunal realms, albeit in very ornate...

complementarity

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A mutual dependency based on an ability to produce goods in one area which are needed in another, as with the import of Japanese manufactured goods to Australia, and the export of Australian agricultural goods to Japan (D. Rumley 1999). Nazara et al. (2006) J. Geog. Sys. 8, 3 explore the degree to which complementarity and competitive interaction at one level in the hierarchy persist at lower or higher...

refugee

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside her or his country of nationality and who is unable or unwilling to return’ (UN Protocol 1976). Australia’s refugee programme seeks to provide a humanitarian response and protection to individual refugees; participate responsibly in the international community; honour its Convention obligations; further the interests of the people of Australia; meet high standards of administration; and acknowledge as much as possible changes in refugee populations ( King (2001) Int. Mig. 39, 1 ). ‘Though attempts...

First World

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...World A misleading term (since ‘first’ does not mean better) for western Europe, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and North America; the first areas to industrialize . Widely used synonyms include ‘the developed world’, ‘the North’, ‘the more economically developed countries’ (MEDCs), and ‘the advanced...

artesian basin

artesian basin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...crest. Water from rain or streams seeps into this aquifer ; the rock becomes saturated, and the water is under pressure. If a hole is sunk to tap the water, an artesian well forms—water will initially flow upwards without pumping. Try B. Radke et al. ( 2000 ) on the Great Australian Artesian...

natural region

natural region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...region A region unified by its physical attributes, especially its latitude, relief and structure, and location. Lane et al. (2004) Australian Geog. Studs 42, 3 argue that the ‘natural’ region is a highly contested concept. Even so, in Canada, federal and provincial park and protected area system plans adopt natural region representation approaches ( Lemieux and Scott (2005) Canad. Geog./Géog. canad. 49, 4...

G-20

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( Group of Twenty ) A group of twenty of the most important economies on the planet. It includes nineteen independent countries along with the European Union: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France † , Germany † , India, Indonesia, Italy † , Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom † , United States, European Union. † = also a member of the...

Gondwanaland

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A ‘supercontinent’: a continuous land surface formed of the now separate units of Africa, Madagascar, Antarctica, Australia, and India. Gondwanaland started in the earliest Paleozoic at the break-up of a Late Proterozoic supercontinent ( Veevers (1988) Geology 16, 8 ), and assembled by 650–570 Ma. See Veevers (2003) Geology 31, 6...

optimum location

optimum location   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...location The best location for a firm in order to maximize profits; ‘in many circumstances, the optimum location of the firm and the optimum production relationships can be shown to be inter-dependent’ (P. McCann 2002). See also Bradshaw (2001) Australian Geogr. 32, 2...

local winds

local winds   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...winds originate in vast anticyclones over hot deserts and include the Santa Ana (California), the Brickfielder (south-east Australia), the Sirocco (Mediterranean), the Haboob (Sudan), the Khamsin (Egypt), and the Harmattan (West Africa). Cold winds originate over mountains or other snow-covered areas and include the Mistral, funnelled down the Rhone Valley, and the Bora . Some local winds, such as the Southerly Burster of Australia, are associated with cold fronts. Other local winds include land breezes and sea breezes. See also mountain wind ; föhn...

natural resource management

natural resource management   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The management of natural resources to promote development that is economically viable, socially beneficial, and ecologically sustainable ; S. Moore and S. Rockloff (2006) analyse the Australian government’s attempts to effect nationwide changes in the management of agricultural areas and rangelands; see also Robins and Dovers (2007) Geogr. Res. 45, 3 on NRM in Australia , and Perreault (2006) Antipode 38, 1 on the exclusion of Bolivia’s poor resulting from the restructuring of water and gas resources. For the methodologies used in natural resource...

La Niña

La Niña   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic, and heavier rainfall in Indonesia and Australia. La Niña can be seen as the other extreme from El Niño . ‘There is strong statistical and modelled evidence that persistent, La Niña-like, cooler sea surface temperatures…produce multiyear droughts not only in the Great Plains and the Southwest, but also in the Mediterranean region of Europe, the Pampas region of South America, the steppes of Central Asia, and the outback of Western Australia’ ( Goodrich (2007) Geog. Compass 1...

post-productivist transition

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Wilson and Rigg (2003) PHG 27, 6 ask whether post-productivist notions can be applied to the developing world, concluding that the concept needs to be adapted and developed to address specific conditions in the rural South, whilst Holmes (2002) TIBG 27 judges that Australia’s rangelands are moving from a post-productivist agricultural occupancy to a multifunctional rural occupancy. In the UK the Countryside Stewardship Scheme attempts to bring about a transformation from a positivist to a more post-positivist approach to agriculture. Amsted in...

pull factor

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...factor A positive factor exerted by a locality that people move to. These have included: new land grants for farmers (the Great Plains; Gutmann (2000) Climatic Change 44, 3 ), assisted passages and other government inducements (for Australia, see P. Burroughs and A. J. Stockwell 1998), freedom of speech or religion (see N. Philbrick 2006), and material inducements (Hong Kong; see Lin (2002) Asia Pac. Viewpt 43, 1...

place identity

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...place construction, while sense of place remains personal, found and grounded in the lived experiences of many residents’ ( Carter et al. (2007) Soc. & Cult. Geog. 8, 5 ). See Hall (1997) Ecumene 4 on repositioning place identity; see McGuirk and Rowe (2001) Australian Geog. Studs 39, 1 and Schwartz (2002) Pol. Geog. 25, 1...

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