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Overview

Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,271 words
Illustration(s):
1

...has led to land degradation in parts of Australia; for example, some grazing land has been overrun by shrubby weeds, reducing the potential productivity of the land. Bibliography Colls, K. , and R. Whitaker . The Australian Weather Book . Brookvale, New South Wales, Australia, 1990. Linacre, E. , and J. Hobbs . The Australian Climatic Environment . Brisbane, Australia: Wiley, 1972. Sturman, A. , and N. Tapper . The Weather and Climate of Australia and New Zealand . 2d ed. South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press, 2006. Neville...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Australia's midlatitudinal position, the dominance of the subtropical high-pressure system. This climate system causes dry, windy conditions conducive to wildfires in southern Australia during the summer months, and similar “fire weather” during the winter months in northern Australia. El Niño–Southern Oscillation events cause regular cycles of droughts and floods across eastern Australia. These geographic factors rendered Australia particularly vulnerable to the environmental upheavals that followed European colonization. Alexander, N. , ed. Australia:...

West Australia Current

West Australia Current   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Australia Current The oceanic current that flows north along the western Australian coast. The flow is strong and steady in summer, reaching speeds of 20–35 cm/s, but is much reduced during the winter months. The salinity (34.5 parts per thousand) and temperature (3–7°C) are both relatively...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...al. Australia State of the Environment 2006: Independent Report to the Australian Government Minister for the Environment and Heritage . Canberra: Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006. Up-to-date compendium of information about critical Australian environmental issues. Flannery, T. F. The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People . Sydney: Read Books, 1994. A best-selling environmental history of Australia that serves as a useful introduction to debates surrounding human impacts and adaptation to Australia. David...

Australian floral province

Australian floral province   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... floral province The floral province that covers all of Australia and contains many endemics ( see endemism ). It is divided into North and East, Central, and South-west...

East Australian Current

East Australian Current   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Australian Current An oceanic water current that flows along the east coast of Australia. This narrow (100–200 km wide) current forms the westerly part of the anticyclonic circulation in the South Pacific. The flow velocity varies in the range 3–5 cm/s. It is an example of a western boundary current...

Australian faunal subregion

Australian faunal subregion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... faunal subregion A region that is distinguished by a unique marsupial (Marsupialia) fauna, including herbivores, carnivores, and insectivores. These evolved in isolation from the placental mammals (Eutheria) which now dominate the other continental faunas. In addition to marsupials there are also very primitive mammals (Monotremata), the spiny anteater and the platypus; and small rodents which are relatively recent (probably Miocene )...

Central Australian floral region

Central Australian floral region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Australian floral region Part of R. Good ’s ( The Geography of the Flowering Plants , 1974 ) Australian kingdom, which accounts for most of the Australian continent, including all the central parts. The flora is imperfectly known, although the great majority of it is likely to be endemic ( see endemism ). Ecologically it coincides with extensive thorn forest , with much Acacia aneura (mulga), A. harpophylla (brigalow), and Eucalyptus hemiphloia (mallee). The flora is poor, partly because of the extensive deserts and semi-deserts that account...

North and East Australian floral province

North and East Australian floral province   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and East Australian floral province Part of the Australian floral province that includes the forests of the eastern Northern Territories, Queensland, New South Wales, and Tasmania, and that includes many endemics ( see endemism...

south-west Australian floral region

south-west Australian floral region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Australian floral region Part of R. Good ’s ( The Geography of the Flowering Plants , 1974 ) Australian floral kingdom, which is a very rich floral region with a high degree of endemism , in many respects rivalling that of the Cape region of South Africa. The same families are prominent in both floras and they have many growth forms in common. See also floral province ; floristic region...

bush

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1 Wilderness or uncleared land, contrasted with cultivated and settled land. 2 An Australian term for forest. 3 A shrub...

brigalow scrub

brigalow scrub   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...scrub The semi-arid scrub vegetation that occurs in parts of Australia; Acacia species provide the main...

Notogea

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The Australasian faunal region , which possesses a very distinctive fauna. It comprises Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the islands to the south and east of Wallace’s line . It can be subdivided into the Australian, Polynesian, and Hawaiian regions. Compare Arctogea ; Neogea...

Sahulland

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The name often given to the tropical portion of the combined Australia–New Guinea land mass, as it existed at times of low sea level during the Pleistocene . The faunas of the two present-day components have great similarities, the differences being due mainly to the fact that New Guinea is largely forested and Australia is largely open country. The Sahul shelf, linking New Guinea with Australia, is less than 200 m below the present sea...

Tonga–Kermadec Trench

Tonga–Kermadec Trench   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Trench The oceanic trench in the western Pacific Ocean which forms part of the boundary between the Indo-Australian and Pacific Plates. At its deepest point, the Horizon Deep, the depth is 10882...

evapotron

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...An instrument developed in Australia to measure the extent and direction of vertical air eddies which are involved in the vertical transfer of water vapour, and thus to provide a direct measurement of evaporation rates over short periods of...

panplain

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( panplane , planplain ) An area of very subdued relief that consists of coalesced flood-plains . It is, therefore, owing to lateral stream migration and is a component of a peneplain . Good examples are found in the Carpentaria region of Australia...

calcrete uranium

calcrete uranium   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...uranium A calcrete ( caliche ) that is locally uraniferous and may constitute a workable ore (e.g. in western Australia and Namibia) because it has formed over a bedrock containing a high concentration of...

ice ages

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Ma ago in North America, South Africa, and Australia. More information exists to suggest that the Earth was glaciated between 950 and 615 Ma ago, and there are at least two glacial horizons in Africa, Australia, and Europe. There is good evidence for a glaciation at the end of the Ordovician in North Africa, but glacial deposits described from elsewhere at this period are problematical, so the extent of the glaciation is not known. The Permo-Carboniferous glaciation of South America, South Africa, India, and Australia was widespread and is well documented....

pseudo-steppe

pseudo-steppe   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...with steppe -like vegetation which occurs outside Eurasia. The term ‘steppe’ strictly refers to the temperate grassland of Eurasia. However, it has also been applied to vegetation on the southern fringe of the Sahara (the Sahel zone), in parts of Namibia, and in south-western Australia...

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