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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia   Reference library

Jeffrey Bond and Tony Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,488 words
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1

...group of Australian sport, exercise, and performance psychologists. References Australian Psychological Society . (1994, October). Minutes of the 1994 Annual General Meeting of the Australian Psychological Society . Melbourne: APS. Australian Sports Commission . (2012). Australia’s Winning Edge 2012–2022 . Canberra: Australian Sports Commission. Australian Sports Commission . (2017). High Performance Strategy . Canberra: Australian Sports Commission. Bloomfield, J. (1974). The role, scope and development of recreation in Australia . Canberra:...

Alexander technique

Alexander technique n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...technique n. A technique for improving posture, bodily movements, and breathing, thereby reducing stress and increasing confidence, popular especially with actors, musicians, and other performing artists. See also body therapies . [Named after the Australian actor and physiotherapist Frederick Mathias Alexander ( 1869–1955 ) who developed and promoted it in the...

proteome

proteome n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...by a genome , especially the human genome, each protein being potentially capable of affecting the function of cells or organs, and many interacting with other proteins. The term was coined by the US-born Australian biochemist Marc R(onald) Wilkins (born 1967 ), Vice-President of Bioinformatics at Proteome Systems Limited in Sydney, Australia, and presented at a scientific meeting in Siena in 1994 , shortly before the sequencing of the human genome. It appeared in print for the first time in an article by Wilkins and others in the journal ...

Whitten effect

Whitten effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...occurring only when a male or his pheromone is present. It has been observed in rats, hamsters, voles, goats, cows, sheep, and humans, and is believed to operate via the vomeronasal organ . Also called the male mouse effect . Compare Lee–Boot effect . [Named after the Australian reproductive biologist Wes (Wesley Kingston) Whitten ( 1918–2010 ) who first reported it in 1959...

Duncan’s multiple range test

Duncan’s multiple range test n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...and then the number of steps that two means are apart in this ranking is used to compute a range statistic for each comparison. Compare Bonferroni correction , least-significant difference test , Newman–Keuls test , Scheffé test , Tukey-HSD test . [Named after the Australian-born US statistician David Beattie Duncan ( 1916–2006 ) who developed it in 1955...

psychopraxia

psychopraxia n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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2015

...intended to unify psychology and parapsychology , eliminating the conceptual distinction between extra-sensory perception ( ESP ) and psychokinesis ( PK ), and also the distinction between normal information-acquisition and normal motor control. It was introduced by the Australian psychologist Michael (Anthony) Thalbourne (born 1955 ) in A Glossary of Terms Used in Parapsychology ( 1982 , pp. 62–63). psychopractic adj . Of or relating to psychopraxia. [From Greek psyche spirit or soul + praxis a deed, from prassein to...

polyonymy

polyonymy n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

... n . The property of having several names. English has no equivalents for the many words for camel in Arabic, snow in the language of the Inuit Eskimos of Greenland, Canada, and Northern Alaska, or hole in the Australian aboriginal Pintupi; but on the other hand few languages have the polyonymy that English has for different types of vehicles ( car , lorry , bus , motorbike , go-cart , and so on). See also linguistic determinism . Compare polysemy . polyonymous adj . [From Greek polys many + onoma a...

Porteus Maze Test

Porteus Maze Test n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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2015

...intelligence scale by measuring aspects of intellectual ability such as foresight, planning, and prudence. It involves finding paths through a series of mazes or labyrinths, and some researchers have considered it culture-fair . PMT abbrev . [Named after the Australian psychologist Stanley D. Porteus ( 1883–1972 ) who constructed it in 1914...

big-fish-little-pond effect

big-fish-little-pond effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...children is high than when it is low. The effect is believed to result from social comparison processes, and it implies that children tend to have lower academic self-esteem in academically selective schools than in non-selective schools. The concept was introduced by the Australian educational psychologist Herbert W. Marsh (born 1946 ) and a colleague in an article in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology in 1984 and strongly corroborated by a survey of 4,000 15-year-olds in 26 countries published by Marsh and a colleague in the...

aptronym

aptronym n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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2015

...Head , the English neurologist; Iris C. Love , the US archaeologist who excavated the temple of Aphrodite (the Greek goddess of love) at Cnidus in Turkey in 1969 ; Gay Search, author of The Last Taboo: Sexual Abuse of Children ( 1988 ); and J. J. C. Smart , the clever Australian philosopher. See also folk etymology ( 2 ) for the aptronym Crapper , nominative determinism. [Irregular formation from Latin aptus fitting + Greek onoma or onyma a...

transliminality

transliminality n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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2015

...coined by the English chemists Francis Lawry Usher ( 1885–1969 ) and Frank Playfair Burt ( 1880–1938 ) in an article in the Annals of Psychical Science in 1909 , referring to the process whereby information crosses the threshold either into or out of consciousness. The Australian psychologist Michael (Anthony) Thalbourne (born 1955 ) introduced the noun transliminality and published the earliest version of this concept in the journal Exceptional Human Experience in 1991 . transliminal adj . [From Latin trans across + limen a threshold +...

uptalk

uptalk n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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2015

... n . An English language speech style in which intonation rises in the final syllables of sentences even if they are not questions. It is associated particularly with young people along the west coast of the United States, but it is believed to have spread from New Zealand or Australia in the 1980s, although it has been a standard feature of the speech style of Belfast, Northern Ireland, for centuries. By the beginning of the 21st century, it had become common among young speakers in the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, and in other English-speaking...

REM sleep

REM sleep abbrev.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...dreams being acted out. REM sleep does not occur in reptiles but has been found in birds and almost all mammals, including dogs and cats (whose eyelids can be lifted gently to reveal darting eyes during REM episodes) and also in bats, moles, and whales, but not in the Australian spiny anteater or echidna of the genus Tachyglossus , which is exceptional in this regard. Also called active sleep , desynchronized ( D ) sleep or paradoxical sleep . See also REM rebound , sleep . Compare NREM sleep...

Hawthorne effect

Hawthorne effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...irrespective of the lighting changes that were introduced. The first formal investigation of the effect was the Relay Assembly Test Room experiment, focusing on the effects of rest pauses and changes in hours of work, which ran from 1927 to 1932 under the directorship of the Australian psychologist Elton Mayo ( 1880–1949 ), with the collaboration of the US human relations researcher Fritz J(ules) Roethlisberger ( 1898–1974 ) and others. The interpretation of all the Hawthorne studies has been a matter of controversy, especially since the mid 1970s. ...

facilitated communication

facilitated communication n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

... and double-blind studies have revealed that disabled people are unable to respond intelligently to stimuli that are unseen by their facilitators and that the facilitators unwittingly control the responses in a manner reminiscent of Clever Hans . It was pioneered by the Australian special needs educator Rosemary Crossley (born 1945 ), who applied it to 12 children with physical and mental handicaps in the early 1970s, and in 1989 it was adopted enthusiastically by a number of speech therapists and special educators in the United States. Also called...

Flynn effect

Flynn effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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2015

...IQ scores, typically averaging about three IQ points per decade, that has been occurring since the introduction of IQ tests in many industrialized societies, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Norway, Israel, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and Japan, the effect being most pronounced on measures of fluid intelligence such as Raven's Progressive Matrices . Because IQ tests are periodically re-standardized to a mean of 100, the increase is not apparent in continuously rising average IQ scores, but people who...

anthropic principle

anthropic principle n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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2015

...life at the present time: if the constants were slightly different, then we would not be here to observe them. Stronger (and more debatable) versions of the principle have been used to support theories of creationism or intelligent design. The principle was named by the Australian theoretical physicist Brandon Carter (born 1942 ) in a paper entitled ‘Large Number Coincidences and the Anthropic Principle in Cosmology’ delivered at a symposium in 1973 and published in the proceedings in 1974 , although he later claimed that a better name would have...

queen bee syndrome

queen bee syndrome n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...bee syndrome n . A tendency for some individually successful women in male-dominated environments to block the advancement of junior female colleagues and to be intolerant of competition from members of their own sex. The term was coined by the Australian-born US social psychologist Graham L. Staines (born 1946 ) and two colleagues in an article in the magazine Psychology Today in 1974 , in the narrower sense of a tendency of successful women to oppose the women’s liberation movement, and experimental evidence for the phenomenon in its more general...

levels of processing

levels of processing n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...early sensory analyses being relatively automatic and effortless and the later deeper analyses requiring attention and effort. The concept was introduced in 1972 by the Canadian-based Scottish psychologist Fergus I(an) M(uirden) Craik (born 1935 ) and the Canadian-based Australian psychologist Robert S. Lockhart (born 1939 ). In 1975 Craik and the Estonian-born Canadian psychologist Endel Tulving (born 1927 ) published a classic experiment in which people first answered yes–no questions about a list of words and then tried to recall as many of...

induction

induction n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...nature might justify induction, in the form of the premise Future observations will resemble past observations , but this could be justified only by a question-begging appeal to induction itself, and in any event it is not true in general—for example, there are black swans in Australia. This apparent inconsistency is called the problem of induction or Hume's problem , and it is solved by the insight that empirical evidence is used to falsify rather than to confirm hypotheses. See also falsifiability , Goodman's paradox , Hempel's paradox , ...

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