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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Berkner, Lloyd

Berkner, Lloyd (1905–1967)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the structure of the ionosphere and its significance for radio propagation. He learned during this period the importance of international cooperation for geophysical research. Berkner traveled internationally and met other researchers in Germany, England, Australia, and New Zealand. While in Australia for an extended period, he worked on the installation of an automatic ionospheric sounder. During World War II, Berkner, a naval reserve officer, supervised aviation electronics engineering with the Radio and Engineering Group within the Engineering division...

Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology   Reference library

Douglas Bacon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...correspondence with versions of Morton’s exploits reached England in December 1846 , and within days ether anesthesia was being used in dental and more traditional surgical operations ( Ellis, 1989 ). By June of 1847 operations under ether anesthesia were being performed in Australia, and the Reverend Doctor Peter Parker performed the first operation under ether in China in October of that year ( Wilson, 1995 ; Sim et al., 2000 ). Over the next 40 years, as antisepsis became an accepted practice, the need for surgical anesthesia greatly increased. At the...

rain forests

rain forests   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...forests . Rain forests are woodlands that are made lush by rainfall of at least 100 mm in each month of the year. Most of the world's rain forests are in the tropics of Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Australia. Temperate rain forests are found in coastal areas such as the U.S. Pacific Northwest and New Zealand. More than half the world's rain forest is in the Amazon River basin. Rain forests play an important role in the global ecology despite occupying just 7 percent of the world's land area. They are home to at least 50 percent of all plant and animal...

telephone, the

telephone, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

.... “Capitalizing on the 'Feminine' Voice.” Canadian Journal of Communication 14 (1989): 42–62. A comparative study on the political economy of the use of women's voices as operators and as radio speakers. Moyal, Ann M. Clear Across Australia . Melbourne: Nelson, 1984. A work on the expansion of the telephone in Australia. Pool, Ithiel de Sola , ed. The Social Impact of the Telephone . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977. A collection of articles that discuss the impact of the development of the telephone from different perspectives in various countries....

government and technology

government and technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...support for technology development. Some of this support takes the form of subsidies to the private sector through tax codes. Most industrial nations encourage industrial firms to invest in R&D by allowing 100 percent of R&D expenses to be deducted from a firm's income tax. Australia, where industrial investment in R&D has long been regarded as insufficient for the nation's long-term economic growth, allows a 125 percent deduction. Some nations, including the United States, Canada, Japan and France, also allow firms that increase their R&D spending to take a...

media and science

media and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...air since 1987 . Astronomy groups and universities regularly produce radio alerts about upcoming astronomical events, such as the University of Texas series Star Date . Many national networks, such as the Canadian Broadcasting Company, maintain science units or offices. The Australian Broadcasting Company has carried Robyn Williams's The Science Show and related programming since 1975 . Radio allowed the public to listen to great scientists; film helped to expand the visualization of their work. Many documentaries have been created for dual purposes, as...

professional responsibilities in medical research

professional responsibilities in medical research   Reference library

Thomas H. Murray

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...a code of conduct aimed at preventing the publication of fabricated data. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors has also published a revised statement on publication ethics that deals with authorship and accountability. Norway, Denmark, Finland, Austria, and Australia also have national systems in place to deal with scientific misconduct. In Japan, a government advisory group, the Science Council of Japan, recommended in 2003 that allegations of research misconduct be investigated by third-party committees run by national ministries of...

Printing and Publishing

Printing and Publishing   Reference library

Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...old-line publishing firms: RCA acquired Random House in 1966 ; CBS bought the textbook publisher Holt Rinehart & Winston (itself a product of earlier mergers) in 1967 . Multinational media empires such as Germany’s Bertelsmann and Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, originally Australian based, became major players in the acquisitions game. With globalization (itself dependent on new communications technologies), publishers could outsource the printing and production process to wherever cost-cutting calculations dictated, including Hong Kong and elsewhere in...

Urban Mass Transit

Urban Mass Transit   Reference library

Robert C. Post

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and yet clean electric streetcars remained in service in only seven cities: Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, San Francisco, Newark, and New Orleans, none with more than a handful of lines. Looking Ahead. Trams still thrived in parts of Europe, in Japan, and in Australia, but the one extensive system in North America was in Toronto. The only American cities with substantial transit ridership were those with subway networks, which enabled the expression “rapid transit” to be taken literally: New York in particular, but also Philadelphia, Boston,...

Airplanes and Air Transport

Airplanes and Air Transport   Reference library

Richard P. Hallion

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...and more capable aircraft. By the middle of the war, Russia, Germany, Italy, Britain, and France all operated large multiengine biplanes. Three crossings of the North Atlantic in 1919 (by a flying boat, a bomber, and an airship) and flights (in stages) from Britain to India, Australia, and South Africa highlighted wartime advances in aviation technology. The international foundation. Starting that year, British, Dutch, French, and German aviators established air services across Europe, into North Africa, and (via exported aircraft) into the Americas and Asia....

Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis   Reference library

Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...physical therapists. Until the late 1940s American scientists, despite significant funding from the National Foundation, made only limited contributions to the understanding of polio’s virology, epidemiology, and physiology. The National Foundation’s most dramatic recipient was Australian nurse Elizabeth Kenny (known as Sister Kenny) who, with the support of physicians at the University of Minnesota, gained National Foundation funding in the early 1940s; this enabled her to offer courses on her distinctive methods to medical professionals. The Kenny method of...

information technology

information technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...virtually is also being held out. And if universities succeed in wresting control over scientific publications from the huge publishing houses (a very open question), then access to the latest scientific articles may become possible and affordable for a researcher in the Australian outback. At the same time, there are forces working to reinforce the traditional center/periphery divide in science internationally. Even with the move to open up access to scientific publications and equipment, there is no guarantee that the “invisible colleges”—the...

Nursing

Nursing   Reference library

Patricia D’Antonio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to combat the dismal strategic failures of and tragic loss of lives in the military in the Crimean peninsula ( Helmstadter, 2010 ). And certainly, a few of the largest, most prestigious, and urban hospitals in the United States, Great Britain, and the British colonies of Australia and Canada followed the example of St. Thomas’s and opened training schools for nurses in the 1870s and 1880s. These well-publicized and self-consciously titled “Nightingale-styled” schools succeeded in offering a secular alternative to the long traditions of the excellent...

Creationism

Creationism   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to flourish. Since its founding in 1972 , Henry M. Morris’s Institute for Creation Research (ICR) had led the way. But after a quarter century it was eclipsed by Answers in Genesis (AiG), a Kentucky-based operation (located just south of Cincinnati) begun in 1994 by the Australian Ken Ham, an alumnus of the ICR. As creationism’s newest star, he packed in audiences almost everywhere he went, speaking to well over 100,000 people a year. In less than a decade he and his AiG colleagues had created a network of AiG organizations around the world. In 2007 ...

Electricity and Electrification

Electricity and Electrification   Reference library

David E. Nye

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...was one of the major challenges of the new century. In the early twenty-first century, there were signs of a shift in consumer awareness. Voluntary curbs on electrical demand took place once a year during the worldwide Earth Hour. This movement began in 2007 in Sydney, Australia, and spread to London and then to eighty-eight countries during the following two years. Held on the last Saturday in March, individuals extinguished their lights and most of their appliances for one hour in a voluntary blackout that rolled around the globe. With this symbolic...

human subjects in medical experiments

human subjects in medical experiments   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...in regulation in industrialized countries are based on the tasks or composition of the review committees. Most national guidelines' only incentive for submitting research protocols to be reviewed is the threat of losing research support for noncompliance. The United States, Australia, and Denmark are most serious about trying to create disincentives for not following the guidelines. Another common feature of review committees is that there is little monitoring after the initial review of the research protocol. Denmark is the only country to continue review...

indigenous knowledge

indigenous knowledge   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...their culture, territorial and human rights, and of their valuable science appears to be beginning. Indigenous Peoples themselves are strongly voicing their concerns about the appropriation and use of traditional knowledge. The Indigenous Peoples of the Americas, Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and the Pacific, united at the World Conference of Indigenous Peoples on Territory, Environment, and Development (May 25–30, 1992 ), endorsed the Kari-Oca Declaration and the Indigenous Peoples Earth Charter, which states: our collective responsibility to carry our...

perspectives on medicine and society

perspectives on medicine and society   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...be standing or sitting? The place of consultation has also radically changed. In the United States at the end of the twentieth century, an extreme example, only 2 percent of medical consultations happened in the home. Other systems, including those in the United Kingdom, Australia, and France, have encouraged general practitioners to make home visits, but the general trend is to consult patients in clinical or even research settings in major urban centers. And then there is the matter of whether or not patients in consultation should be sitting or...

perspectives on technology and society

perspectives on technology and society   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...on the various developments for controlling and managing passenger flow proposed by the AA, a privatized former U.K. government ministry that now makes huge profits for shareholders (£1 billion a year) and has contracts and/or owns airports in Britain, Europe, the Middle East, Australia, and the United States. The AA operates in a context of needing to enhance profits and shareholder dividends, and of sensitivities to security issues following September 11th, 2001 , and the so-called war on terror. Some of the more visible developments included the proposed...

Astronomy and Astrophysics

Astronomy and Astrophysics   Reference library

Trudy E. Bell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...quarters of the density of the universe—was confirmed in 1998 by the observations of supernovae by two teams of observers, one led by Saul Perlmutter of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the other by Adam G. Riess of Johns Hopkins University and Brian P. Schmidt of Australian National University. Radio astronomy. In 1931 , Bell Telephone Laboratories physicist and radio engineer Karl Jansky in New Jersey discovered hissing static at a shortwave radio frequency. Because it followed the 23-hour 56-minute sidereal day instead of the 24-hour solar day,...

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