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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Australia's midlatitudinal position, the dominance of the subtropical high-pressure system. This climate system causes dry, windy conditions conducive to wildfires in southern Australia during the summer months, and similar “fire weather” during the winter months in northern Australia. El Niño–Southern Oscillation events cause regular cycles of droughts and floods across eastern Australia. These geographic factors rendered Australia particularly vulnerable to the environmental upheavals that followed European colonization. Alexander, N. , ed. Australia:...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...al. Australia State of the Environment 2006: Independent Report to the Australian Government Minister for the Environment and Heritage . Canberra: Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006. Up-to-date compendium of information about critical Australian environmental issues. Flannery, T. F. The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People . Sydney: Read Books, 1994. A best-selling environmental history of Australia that serves as a useful introduction to debates surrounding human impacts and adaptation to Australia. David...

Australian realm

Australian realm   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... realm A biogeographical realm which is largely desert , surrounded by tropical forest and savanna...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change  

Australia serves as a model for understanding how human cultures cause environmental change and how environmental constraints drive cultural adaptation. Here most environments are biologically ...
Australian faunal subregion

Australian faunal subregion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... faunal subregion A region that is distinguished by a unique marsupial (Marsupialia) fauna, including herbivores, carnivores, and insectivores. These evolved in isolation from the placental mammals (Eutheria), which now dominate the other continental faunas. In addition to marsupials there are also very primitive mammals (Monotremata), the spiny anteater and the platypus; and small rodents which are relatively recent (probably Miocene )...

Central Australian floral region

Central Australian floral region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Australian floral region Part of R. Good’s Australian kingdom ( The Geography of the Flowering Plants , 1974 ), which accounts for most of the Australian continent, including all the central parts. The flora is imperfectly known, although the great majority of it is likely to be endemic . Ecologically it coincides with extensive thorn forest , with much Acacia aneura (mulga), A. harpophylla (brigalow), and Eucalyptus hemiphloia (mallee). The flora is poor, partly because of the extensive deserts and semi-deserts that account for most of the...

south-west Australian floral region

south-west Australian floral region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Australian floral region Part of R. Good’s Australian floral kingdom ( The Geography of the Flowering Plants , 1974 ), which is a very rich floral region with a high degree of endemism , in many respects rivalling that of the Cape region of South Africa. The same families are prominent in both floras and they have many growth forms in...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,079 words
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2

...Lines Used to Delimit the Oriental and Australian Zoogeographic Regions. (Adapted from Simpson, 1977.) Zoologists recognize eighty-nine families of terrestrial mammals (excluding bats). Three families are found worldwide because of human dispersal; these include rats and mice (family Muridae), rabbits and hares (Leporidae), and dogs and wolves (Canidae). The remainder vary in terms of their dispersal success. For example, ursids (bears), cervids (deer), and soricids (shrews) are found in all but the Australian region. Conversely, families including the...

Kyoto Progress

Kyoto Progress   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
928 words
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1

...from up 26.6% to up 52.2% (UNFCC, 2006 ). The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (AP7) comprises the United States, Canada, India, Australia, China, South Korea, and Japan. The idea is said to be Australian-inspired but U.S.-led and is intended to bring together the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gases, India and China being exempted from the 2008–2012 targets, and Australia and the United States being Annex I nations that declined to ratify the treaty because India and China were not compelled to monitor and reduce their...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,732 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Various Lines Used to Delimit the Oriental and Australian Zoogeographic Regions. (Adapted from Simpson, 1977.) Zoologists recognize 89 families of terrestrial mammals (excluding bats). Three families are found worldwide because of human dispersal; these include rats and mice (family Muridae), rabbits and hares (Leporidae) and dogs and wolves (Canidae). The remainder varies in terms of their dispersal success. For example, ursids (bears), cervids (deer) and soricids (shrews) are found in all but the Australian region. Conversely, families including the...

Heathlands

Heathlands   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Hague: W. Junk, 1983. Reviews the origins, uses, and management of European heaths, with special reference to grazing, burning, and “plaggen” (turf stripping). Hobbs, R. J. , ed. Biodiversity of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Australia . Chipping Norton, New South Wales, Australia: Surrey Beatty, 1992. Includes much material on Australian heathlands. Hobbs, R. J. , and C. H. Gimingham . Vegetation, Fire and Herbivore Interactions in Heathland. In Advances in Ecological Research 16 , edited by A. Macfadyen and E. D. Ford , pp. 87–173. London: Academic...

Heathlands

Heathlands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Impacts on Biodiversity in the Cape Floristic Region. ” Biological Conservation 112 (2003), 87–97. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00414-7. Pate, J. S. , and J. S. Beard . Kwongan: Plant Life of the Sand Plain . Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 1984. A compre-hensive review of southwestern Australian heathlands. Smidt, J. T. de . “ Phytosociological Relations in the North West European Heath. ” Acta Botanica Neerlandica 15 (1967), 630–647. Analyzes the variation in floristic composition of European heathland vegetation....

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
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...Red Sea almost as far north as the Gulf of Aqaba (28° north) and in western Australia south to Bunbury (33°20' south). In the western Pacific there are mangroves as far north as the Min River (26° north) in China and on the Satsuma Peninsula in southern Kyushu, Japan (31°37' north). On the North Island of New Zealand mangroves extend south to Raglan (Whaingaroa) Harbour on the western coast (37° 48' S) and Ohiwa Harbour on the eastern coast (close to 38° S), while in (eastern) Australia they reach their southernmost limit in Corner Inlet, Victoria (38°55' S)....

Salinization

Salinization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,373 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of irrigation. In the case of the semiarid northern plains of Victoria in Australia, for instance, the water table has been rising at around 1.5 meters per year, so that now in many areas it is almost within 1 meter of the surface. When ground water comes within 3 meters of the surface in clay soils (less for silty and sandy soils), capillary forces bring moisture to the surface, where evaporation takes place (Currey, 1977). A survey of the problem in southeastern Australia is provided by Grieve ( 1987 ). Salinization. Table 1. Increase in Level of...

Mediterranean Environments

Mediterranean Environments   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... (Australia) and fynbos (South Africa) ( Dallman , 1998 ). The woody shrubs are fire-resistant or fire-dependent, with evergreen leaves that are generally broad, stiff, and sticky or waxy; other species adopt reduced leaf size in response to the lack of summer moisture. Geophytes (perennial plants that reproduce vegetatively from buds below the soil surface), too, are prominent elements, particularly immediately after fire. Woodlands occur around the Mediterranean basin, where cork oak, Quercus suber , forms a distinctive overstory while, in Australia,...

Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...in the Australian state of Victoria, as environmental effects assessment ( EEA ). The word “impact” is sometimes perceived to have negative connotations. In the United States, an environmental assessment is a preliminary study undertaken as part of the EIA process to identify the likelihood of significant impacts, which then require the preparation of a full EIS. EIA has expanded beyond NEPA's initial coverage of U.S. government projects. Wood's ( 2002 ) comparison of EIA systems in six countries and the states of California and Western Australia shows that...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...shores of the Red Sea north to near Hurghada, Gulf of Aqaba (28° north) and in western Australia south to Bunbury (33° 20′ south). In the western Pacific there are mangroves as far north as the Min Jiang (26° north) in China and on the Satsuma Peninsula in southern Kyushu, Japan (31° 37′ north). In the North Island of New Zealand mangroves extend south to Raglan Harbour on the western coast (37° 48′ S) and Ohiwa Harbour on the eastern coast (close to 38° S), while in Australia they reach their southernmost limit in Corner Inlet, Victoria (38° 55′ S). Mangroves...

Salinization

Salinization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,511 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the world, such as Australia, salinization has resulted from vegetation clearance ( Peck , 1978 ). This is called “dryland salinity.” The removal of native forest vegetation allows a greater penetration of rainfall into deeper soil layers, which causes groundwater levels to rise, creating seepage of saline water in low-lying areas. Similar problems exist in North America, notably in Manitoba, Alberta, Montana, and North Dakota. The clearance of the native evergreen forest (predominantly eucalyptus forest) in southwestern Australia has led to an increase...

Ecological value of Parks and Preserves

Ecological value of Parks and Preserves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Australia's National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity (Commonwealth of Australia, 1996 ) are to increase the representativeness of terrestrial and marine protected areas and to integrate, within the next ten years, management plans for protected areas with plans for resource management in surrounding landscapes. [ See also Biological Diversity ; Biomes ; Carrying Capacity ; Land Preservation; and Wilderness and Biodiversity .] Bibliography Commonwealth of Australia. National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's...

Savannas

Savannas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,181 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Canberra: Australian Academy of Science, 1985. A useful general survey, focused on Australia. Walker, B. H. , and J. C. Ménaut , eds. Research Procedure and Experimental Design for Savanna Ecology and Management . Melbourne: CSIRO, 1988. A helpful guide to research methods in savanna ecology. Werner, P. A. , ed. Savanna Ecology and Management: Australian Perspectives and Intercontinental Comparisons . Oxford, U.K., and Boston, Mass.: Blackwell, 1991. One of the more up-to-date surveys of current problems in savanna ecology, emphasizing Australia and Latin...

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