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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,271 words
Illustration(s):
1

...has led to land degradation in parts of Australia; for example, some grazing land has been overrun by shrubby weeds, reducing the potential productivity of the land. Bibliography Colls, K. , and R. Whitaker . The Australian Weather Book . Brookvale, New South Wales, Australia, 1990. Linacre, E. , and J. Hobbs . The Australian Climatic Environment . Brisbane, Australia: Wiley, 1972. Sturman, A. , and N. Tapper . The Weather and Climate of Australia and New Zealand . 2d ed. South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press, 2006. Neville...

West Australia current

West Australia current   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Australia current The oceanic current that flows north along the western Australian coast. The flow is strong and steady in summer, but is much reduced during the winter months. Low salinity (34.5‰) and low temperature (3–7 °C) typify the waters of this...

Australian realm

Australian realm   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... realm A biogeographical realm which is largely desert , surrounded by tropical forest and savanna...

East Australian current

East Australian current   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Australian current Oceanic water current that flows along the east coast of Australia. This narrow (100–200 km wide) current forms the westerly part of the anticyclonic circulation in the S. Pacific. The flow velocity varies in the range 0.3–0.5 m/s. It is an example of a western boundary ...

Australian faunal realm

Australian faunal realm   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... faunal realm Region distinguished by a unique marsupial fauna, including herbivores, carnivores, and insectivores. These evolved in isolation from the placental mammals which now dominate the other continental faunas. In addition to marsupials there are also very primitive mammals (monotremes): the spiny anteater and the platypus; and small rodents which are relatively recent (probably Miocene )...

Indo-Australian Plate

Indo-Australian Plate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Australian Plate One of the present-day major lithospheric plates , which is having new material added to its south and south-west along the Carlsberg Ridge and the south-east Indian Rise, but its other margins are the collision zone of the Himalayan orogenic belt, subduction zones (e.g. in the E. Indies), or transform faults (e.g. the Alpine Fault in New Zealand). It is thought this plate may now be breaking into two separate plates along the line of the 90° E...

Australian faunal subregion

Australian faunal subregion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... faunal subregion A region that is distinguished by a unique marsupial (Marsupialia) fauna, including herbivores, carnivores, and insectivores. These evolved in isolation from the placental mammals (Eutheria), which now dominate the other continental faunas. In addition to marsupials there are also very primitive mammals (Monotremata), the spiny anteater and the platypus; and small rodents which are relatively recent (probably Miocene )...

Central Australian floral region

Central Australian floral region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Australian floral region Part of R. Good’s Australian kingdom ( The Geography of the Flowering Plants , 1974 ), which accounts for most of the Australian continent, including all the central parts. The flora is imperfectly known, although the great majority of it is likely to be endemic . Ecologically it coincides with extensive thorn forest , with much Acacia aneura (mulga), A. harpophylla (brigalow), and Eucalyptus hemiphloia (mallee). The flora is poor, partly because of the extensive deserts and semi-deserts that account for most of the...

south-west Australian floral region

south-west Australian floral region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Australian floral region Part of R. Good’s Australian floral kingdom ( The Geography of the Flowering Plants , 1974 ), which is a very rich floral region with a high degree of endemism , in many respects rivalling that of the Cape region of South Africa. The same families are prominent in both floras and they have many growth forms in...

Indo-Australian Plate

Indo-Australian Plate  

One of the present-day major lithospheric plates, which is having new material added to its south and south-west along the Carlsberg Ridge and the south-east Indian Rise, but its other margins are ...
environmental economics

environmental economics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...economics ‘Understanding why environmental issues exist, identifying them if it is worth remedying the situation, and developing solutions’ ( Rolfe (2008) Australian J. Agric. & Resources Econ. 52, 1...

aborigine

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A member of an indigenous people existing in a land before invasion or colonization from outside. For Canadian aboriginal peoples, see Atlas of Urban Original Peoples ; for Australian, the Aboriginal Environments Research Centre, U. Adelaide; for Bolivian, Denevan (1966) Nat. Tech. Info. Service...

barrier reef

barrier reef   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...reef A coral reef , stretching along a line parallel with the coastline but separated from it by a wide, deep lagoon , the most famous of which is the Great Barrier Reef off north-west Australia (see D. Hopley et al....

binary distribution

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...distribution A city-size distribution in which a number of settlements of similar size dominate the upper end of the hierarchy, said to be characteristic of nations with a federal political structure, such as Australia. See also rank-size rule...

faunal realms

faunal realms   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... palearctic (extra-tropical Asia, Europe, and North Africa). The neotropical realm covers Central and South America; the Ethiopian Africa south of the Sahara and Arabia. The oriental realm is tropical Asia, with an ill-defined boundary between it and the Australian realm (New Zealand, Australia, Oceania, and some of South-East Asia). See Smith (2004) Complexity 10, 2 for an evolutionary understanding of faunal realms, albeit in very ornate...

complementarity

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A mutual dependency based on an ability to produce goods in one area which are needed in another, as with the import of Japanese manufactured goods to Australia, and the export of Australian agricultural goods to Japan (D. Rumley 1999). Nazara et al. (2006) J. Geog. Sys. 8, 3 explore the degree to which complementarity and competitive interaction at one level in the hierarchy persist at lower or higher...

refugee

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside her or his country of nationality and who is unable or unwilling to return’ (UN Protocol 1976). Australia’s refugee programme seeks to provide a humanitarian response and protection to individual refugees; participate responsibly in the international community; honour its Convention obligations; further the interests of the people of Australia; meet high standards of administration; and acknowledge as much as possible changes in refugee populations ( King (2001) Int. Mig. 39, 1 ). ‘Though attempts...

First World

First World   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...World A misleading term (since ‘first’ does not mean better) for western Europe, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and North America; the first areas to industrialize . Widely used synonyms include ‘the developed world’, ‘the North’, ‘the more economically developed countries’ (MEDCs), and ‘the advanced...

artesian basin

artesian basin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...crest. Water from rain or streams seeps into this aquifer ; the rock becomes saturated, and the water is under pressure. If a hole is sunk to tap the water, an artesian well forms—water will initially flow upwards without pumping. Try B. Radke et al. ( 2000 ) on the Great Australian Artesian...

natural region

natural region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...region A region unified by its physical attributes, especially its latitude, relief and structure, and location. Lane et al. (2004) Australian Geog. Studs 42, 3 argue that the ‘natural’ region is a highly contested concept. Even so, in Canada, federal and provincial park and protected area system plans adopt natural region representation approaches ( Lemieux and Scott (2005) Canad. Geog./Géog. canad. 49, 4...

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