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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

bauxite

bauxite   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
41 words

...The chief ore of aluminium, consisting of hydrous aluminium oxides and aluminous laterite. It is a claylike amorphous material formed by the weathering of silicate rocks under tropical conditions. The chief producers are Australia, Guinea, Jamaica, Russia, Brazil, and...

carnotite

carnotite   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
59 words

...consisting of hydrated uranium potassium vanadate, K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (VO 4 ) 2 . n H 2 O. It varies in colour from bright yellow to lemon- or greenish-yellow. It is a source of uranium, radium, and vanadium. The chief occurrences are in the Colorado Plateau, USA; Radium Hill, Australia; and Katanga,...

magnesite

magnesite   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
62 words

...3 , crystallizing in the trigonal system. It is formed as a replacement mineral of magnesium-rich rocks when carbon dioxide is available. Magnesite is mined both as an ore for magnesium and as a source of magnesium carbonate. It occurs in Austria, USA, Greece, Norway, India, Australia, and South...

cuprite

cuprite   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
49 words

...A red mineral cubic form of copper(I) oxide, Cu 2 O; an important ore of copper. It occurs where deposits of copper have been subjected to oxidation. The mineral has been mined as a copper ore in Chile, Democratic Republic of Congo, Bolivia, Australia, Russia, and the...

galena

galena   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
55 words

...A mineral form of lead(II) sulphide, PbS, crystallizing in the cubic system; the chief ore of lead. It usually occurs as grey metallic cubes, frequently in association with silver, arsenic, copper, zinc, and antimony. Important deposits occur in Australia (at Broken Hill), Germany, the USA (especially in Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma), and the...

sapphire

sapphire   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
92 words

...the blue variety, but other colours of sapphire include yellow, brown, green, pink, orange, and purple. Sapphires are obtained from igneous and metamorphic rocks and from alluvial deposits. The chief sources are Sri Lanka, Kashmir, Burma, Thailand, East Africa, the USA, and Australia. Sapphires are used as gemstones and in record-player styluses and some types of laser. They are synthesized by the Verneuil flame-fusion process. The colours of sapphire are caused by small amounts of impurities, such as titanium...

chalcopyrite

chalcopyrite   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
77 words

...to pyrite and gold. It crystallizes in igneous rocks and hydrothermal veins associated with the upper parts of acid igneous intrusions. Chalcopyrite is the most widespread of the copper ores, occurring, for example, in Cornwall (UK), Sudbury (Canada), Chile, Tasmania (Australia), and Rio Tinto...

Florey, Howard Walter, Baron

Florey, Howard Walter, Baron (1898–1968)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
83 words

...Howard Walter, Baron ( 1898–1968 ) Australian pathologist , who moved to Oxford in 1922 . After working in Cambridge and Sheffield, he returned to Oxford in 1935 . There he teamed up with Ernst Chain and by 1939 they succeeded in isolating and purifying penicillin . They also developed a method of producing the drug in large quantities and carried out its first clinical trials. The two men shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with penicillin’s discoverer, Alexander Fleming...

sphalerite

sphalerite   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
65 words

...of zinc. It is usually yellow-brown to brownish-black in colour and occurs, often with galena, in metasomatic deposits and also in hydrothermal veins and replacement deposits. Sphalerite is mined on every continent, the chief sources including the USA, Canada, Mexico, Russia, Australia, Peru, and...

opal

opal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
106 words

...as gemstones, display the property of opalescence – a characteristic internal play of colours resulting from the interference of light rays within the stone. Black opal has a black background against which the colours are displayed. The chief sources of precious opals are Australia and Mexico. Geyserite is a variety deposited by geysers or hot springs. Another variety, diatomite, is made up of the skeletons of...

diamond

diamond   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...They are highly prized as gemstones but also have extensive uses in industry, mainly for cutting and grinding tools. Diamonds occur in ancient volcanic pipes of kimberlite; the most important deposits are in South Africa but others are found in Tanzania, the USA, Russia, and Australia. Diamonds also occur in river deposits that have been derived from weathered kimberlite, notably in Brazil, Zaïre, Sierra Leone, and India. Industrial diamonds are increasingly being produced synthetically....

coal

coal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
295 words

...during the Carboniferous and Permian periods. More recent periods of coal formation occurred during the early Jurassic and Tertiary periods. Coal deposits occur in all the major continents; the leading producers include the USA, China, Ukraine, Poland, UK, South Africa, India, Australia, and Germany. Coal is used as a fuel and in the chemical industry; by-products include coke and coal...

RU486

RU486  

ormifepristone; 11β‐(4‐dimethylaminophenyl)‐17β‐hydroxy‐17α‐prop‐1‐ynylestra‐4, 9‐dien‐3‐one; a steroidal progesterone‐receptor antagonist that prevents implantation of a fertilized ovum in the ...
parsimony

parsimony  

In cladistic analysis, the convention whereby the simplest explanation is preferred, because it requires the fewest conjectures, although the most parsimonious explanation is not always the correct ...

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