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Overview

Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia Antigen

Australia Antigen   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Australia Antigen Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). So called because it was first identified in an Australian aborigine. HBsAg is a biomarker for the prevalence of infection with the virus of hepatitis B. ...

Occupational Performance Model (Australia)

Occupational Performance Model (Australia)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Occupational Performance Model (Australia) ( OPM(A) ) A model initially developed in 1986 at the University of Sydney, Australia, by Christine Chapparo and Judy Ranka. The aim of the model is to demonstrate the complexity of human occupational performance and to recognize the domain of concern of occupational therapy. The model comprises eight major constructs: occupational performance, occupational performance roles, occupational performance areas (rest, self-maintenance, leisure/play, productivity/school), components of occupational performance...

inclusive design

inclusive design   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...inclusive design Alternative term for universal design used in Australia and the United...

APHA

APHA   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...APHA 1 American Public Health Association. 2 Public health associations in other jurisdictions beginning with “A” (Australia, Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Alberta, etc.). ...

Q fever

Q fever   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Q fever An acute zoonotic rickettsial infection caused by Coxiella burnetii , with cattle and sheep as primary hosts and airborne spread to humans. The bacterium was named for the Australian microbiologist Macfarlane Burnet ( 1899–1985 ), who first isolated it. Q may stand for Queensland, Australia, where the disease was first identified, or for “query,” because at first the origin of the disease was unknown. It is an occupational disease of people who work with cattle and sheep; e.g., stockmen, veterinarians. ...

Citizens Advice Bureau

Citizens Advice Bureau   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Citizens Advice Bureau A municipal organization, chiefly in the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand, staffed by paid professionals trained in such fields as social work and/or by untrained or partially trained volunteers who provide counseling on miscellaneous social, economic, legal, and housing problems, referral services, etc. ...

friendly societies

friendly societies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...friendly societies A collective name for a large number of insurance programs to help cover the costs of medical care, prescribed drugs, and partial support of inpatient hospital care, operated by national service clubs and the like, in the United Kingdom, European nations, Australia, and New Zealand before these nations had comprehensive tax-supported health care insurance systems. ...

Murray Valley encephalitis

Murray Valley encephalitis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Murray Valley encephalitis An arbovirus encephalitis prevalent along the River Murray in Australia, transmitted to humans from pelicans and other aquatic birds by mosquitoes in wet seasons when lagoons form along the river banks so human and avian habitats are closer together than in dry seasons. ...

Reye syndrome

Reye syndrome   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Reye syndrome An acute, potentially fatal childhood disease with encephalopathy and hepatic necrosis. Its presumed cause is the use of aspirin to control fever in acute febrile infections. Mild forms that pass unnoticed may be relatively common. Named for Australian pathologist Ralph Reye ( 1912–78 ), who first described the syndrome and identified its relationship to aspirin use. ...

myxomatosis

myxomatosis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...myxomatosis A lethal viral disease of rabbits, deliberately introduced to control the plague of rabbits in Australia. Observations of the progress of the epidemic provided opportunities for epidemiologists to study host-agent-environment interactions, from which valuable lessons were learned for subsequent application in human epidemics. Evolution of generations of rabbits that were resistant to myxomatosis was observed after several years. ...

population density

population density   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...population density A measure of the number of people in a defined jurisdiction in relation to the size of the jurisdiction. For instance, Singapore has a population density of 6,400 persons per 1,000 hectares, which is very high; Australia has a low population density of 24 persons per 1,000 hectares. ...

nomads

nomads   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...resources available to them in harsh environments. Examples are Australian Aborigines and the Inuit of northern Canada, who until recently subsisted by hunting and gathering. Many nomads do have temporary semifixed habitations; the animals they hunt or their herds of cattle, goats, or sheep wander, and the nomads wander with them. It is a harsh existence with precarious food supplies, and malnutrition frequently threatens health. Indigenous nomadic people in North America and Australia include many who have now settled in fixed homes. ...

hydatid disease

hydatid disease   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...that herd their sheep. Hydatid disease was formerly common in countries where sheep-herding is a large part of rural economy; e.g., Iceland, central Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Educational campaigns aimed at breaking the life cycle by ensuring that dogs do not eat raw offal and improving the personal hygiene of farmers, etc. has led to eradication from Iceland, and near-eradication in Cyprus, Australia, and New Zealand. ...

community medicine

community medicine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of the health services of that community. One of several terms that came into vogue because of dissatisfaction with the alleged political or emotional associations of the traditional term public health and alternatives such as social medicine . In some countries, notably Australia, the term is equated with general or family medical practice, and for this reason it fell from favor among specialists academically trained in community medicine. ...

Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the gut of a high proportion of humans, is either an initiator or a cofactor in causing peptic ulcer. Antibiotic treatment to eradicate the pathogen leads to improvement and cure of peptic ulcer. The role of this pathogen in gastritis and peptic ulcer was discovered by the Australian physicians Robin Warren (b. 1937 ) and Barry Marshall (b. 1951 ). They received the Nobel Prize for their work on this in 2005 . ...

Robertson–Berger meter

Robertson–Berger meter   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Robertson–Berger meter An electronic instrument used to measure ultraviolet radiation flux, which is a component of solar radiation. Originally designed in Australia by D. R. Robertson ( 1914–1989 ) in the 1950s, the meters were modified by D. S. Berger (b. 1923 ) in the United States. Robertson–Berger meters are used to assess the potential risk to humans and other organisms from solar ultraviolet radiation. Alternative measuring instruments for UV radiation flux are described; some employ biological monitoring. ...

rubella

rubella   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...rubella ( German measles ) A childhood infectious disease that causes a fine macular rash, mild fever, and conjunctivitis. It is usually innocuous, but in the early 1940s the Australian ophthalmologist Norman Gregg ( 1892–1966 ) observed that patients with congenital cataract had a history of prenatal exposure to maternal rubella, which had occurred in a widespread epidemic some months earlier. Subsequently, rubella during early pregnancy was found to increase the risk of other abnormalities if rubella infected the fetus; i.e., congenital rubella....

shooting gallery

shooting gallery   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...colloquial name for a place frequented by illicit intravenous drug users to inject drugs and buy supplies from street vendors. This may be an abandoned building in a decayed slum neighborhood or a secluded city park. In some European cities, for instance in Switzerland, and in Australia, such places are maintained in hygienic conditions by municipal or other public authorities, who also offer rehabilitation. In the United States, those who use them may be targets for punitive law enforcement with no attempts at rehabilitation. ...

American Boards

American Boards   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and periodical reassessment of specialized physicians, certifying fitness to practice that specialty. Professionals who have fulfilled the requirements of a specialty board are described as “board certified.” In other English-speaking nations (i.e., the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, etc.) and elsewhere in the world, comparable systems of specialized colleges fulfill this role, and many also act as professional organizations for members of the relevant specialty. ...

American College of Preventive Medicine

American College of Preventive Medicine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...British equivalent is the Faculty of Public Health of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom, which has similar standards that are generally considered somewhat more rigorous. Royal Colleges or a specialized “faculty” of a Royal College perform this function in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, and comparable bodies exist in many other countries. See http://www.acpm.org . ...

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