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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

United Nations Commission on Human Rights

United Nations Commission on Human Rights  

Commonly referred to as UNCHR, this United Nations commission promotes the adoption and implementation of human rights instruments (see International Bill of Rights. It also undertakes human rights ...
Truth Commission

Truth Commission  

A state-supported, temporary body with a specific mandate to investigate and report on past human rights abuses that occurred over a specified period. Such commissions have a restorative justice ...
International Commission of Jurists

International Commission of Jurists  

The ICJ is an international non-government organization supporting the elements of international law which advance human rights. Founded in 1952, its membership consists of 60 jurists representative ...
Culture and Human Rights

Culture and Human Rights  

Yanomami Indians in Brazil fighting for protection of their traditional lifestyle; Indians of the Awas Tingni community in Nicaragua claiming the demarcation of their land; Aborigines in Australia ...
Art and Images

Art and Images   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,916 words

...also addressed these issues. The Niuean-born Pacific Islander artist John Pule , who lived in New Zealand, passionately denounced the arrogance of power in his American Series . The Australian artist Pat Hoffie has dealt movingly with issues of injustice and reconciliation related to Aboriginal people in Australia and injustices suffered by interned refugees in Australia as well as the continuing exploitation of the developing world by industrialized nations. Jayce Salloum in Canada has used photography and film for decades to explore questions such as...

International Organization for Migration

International Organization for Migration   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,762 words

...needed to relocate abroad the overwhelming number of unemployed Eastern European refugees unable to find housing. The International Labour Organization ( ILO ) debated ways to relocate surplus manpower from economically depressed Western European countries to South America, Australia, and New Zealand. The ILO's Communist members balked, and in 1951 the United States funded the exclusively non-Communist PICMME, which operated out of the former IRO office in Geneva. By 1953 the sixteen founding members had renamed the organization the Intergovernmental...

Racial Discrimination Convention

Racial Discrimination Convention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,280 words

...discrimination was discussed by CERD in B. M. S. v. Australia of 1996 . The author of the communication, a medical doctor in Australia, had graduated from a university in India and held a diploma from the University of London. He had practiced medicine in England, India, Ireland, and the United States. In 1992 the Australian minister of health imposed a quota on the number of doctors trained overseas. As a result, doctors who were trained abroad but who were Australian residents or Australian citizens could no longer be registered because they fell...

Racial Discrimination

Racial Discrimination   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,239 words

...continents across the globe, and internally colonized the lands already in their possession. During this period of global conquest and Westernization of foreign lands, Russia emerged as a new colonial power along with the “British Dominions”—British imperial outposts—of Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa. In each case, the conquerors were whites and the conquered were nonwhites, reflecting the racial dynamics of the previous historical chapter of slavery in modern racism. Similar to earlier claims of white racial superiority used to justify...

Commonwealth of Nations

Commonwealth of Nations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,068 words

...official name is simply the Commonwealth—is an intergovernmental organization made up of Great Britain and its former colonies and associated states. In the early twenty-first century the Commonwealth was made up of fifty-three member states. The original members included Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa; they were joined by India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka in the 1940s. The Commonwealth advances the members’ development and human rights. In the early twenty-first century all recognized or accredited Commonwealth states, citizens, companies,...

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Peoples   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,166 words

...as recognized in numerous treaties. Early twenty-first-century issues concerning their human rights derived to a large extent from violations of these treaties. Legal criteria determine who is Indian in each case. With or without treaties, Indians, just as the Aborigines in Australia, were resettled on reserves or reservations, which in turn as time went on, lost chunks of their land to outside interests. When most Latin American countries established their democratic constitutional structures in the early nineteenth century, they initiated a process of...

Japanese Atrocities in the 1930s and 1940s

Japanese Atrocities in the 1930s and 1940s   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,369 words

...the Netherlands, Australia, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand; 35,756 died while detained, a death rate of about 27 percent. In contrast, deaths among the 235,473 Allied POWs interned by Germans and Italians only reached 9,348, a rate of 4 percent. In other words, the death rate for POWs under the Japanese was seven times that of POWs under the Germans and Italians. Moreover, the postwar death rate among surviving POWs of the Japanese was also higher. For example, from 1945 to 1959 the death rate among former Australian POWs who had been...

Sexual and Gender Diversity

Sexual and Gender Diversity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,639 words

... and 1810 , followed by the Netherlands in 1811 , Spain in 1822 , Belgium in 1843 , and Italy in 1889 . Russia decriminalized them in 1922 , restoring a prohibition under Joseph Stalin in 1933 . In the postwar years decriminalization spread in Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand and Latin America. Decriminalization occurred in parts of the United Kingdom—in England, Scotland, and Wales—but not Northern Ireland. In the famous case of Dudgeon v. United Kingdom in 1981 , the European Court of Human Rights held that the criminal law in...

Discrimination and Older Persons

Discrimination and Older Persons   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,267 words

...the convention does prohibit discrimination on the grounds of “other status,” which could be interpreted as applying to age. In 2003 a complaint was brought to the Human Rights Committee under the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its optional protocol by a group of Australian airline pilots, who claimed that they were wrongfully terminated in violation of Articles 2 and 26 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 2 states that parties to the covenant must ensure rights “without distinction of any kind,” including “other status.”...

Indonesia

Indonesia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,503 words

...in Indonesia. 1950s and 1990s . Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University. Budiardjo, Carmel , and Liem Soei Liong : West Papua: The Obliteration of a People . Surrey, U.K.: TAPOL, 1988. Budiman, Arief , ed. State and Civil Society . Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1990. Budiman, Arief , Barbara Hatley , and Damien Kingsbury , eds. Reformasi. Crisis and Change in Indonesia . Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University,...

Indigenous Rights Movement

Indigenous Rights Movement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,132 words

...experiencing the same problems and struggling against the same alienation, marginalisation and sense of powerlessness. (p. 19) Thus, as happened to Dodson, while attendees might arrive at one of the annual sessions as Yawuru from the Broome area of southern Kimberley in Western Australia and members of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commission, they left as “indigenous peoples” who were part of an international indigenous rights movement. As attention to indigenous peoples’ concerns grew within the UN, new entities arose to marshal...

Oxfam

Oxfam   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,451 words

...made an early commitment to marketing handicrafts from organizations in developing countries, while offering fair prices, training, and funding to the producers. Oxfam gradually expanded its institutional presence beyond England, establishing independent affiliates in Belgium, Australia, the United States, and two in Canada, one based in Ottawa for English-speaking Canada and the other in Quebec for French-speaking Canadians in the 1960s and early 1970s. Although Oxfam devoted the bulk of its financial and human resources to addressing problems of poverty, such...

Care International

Care International   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,254 words

...the first country in Europe to raise funds for CARE programs in the developing world. In the early twenty-first century there were twelve members: the founder, CARE USA; Germany; Australia; Austria; Canada; Denmark; France; Japan; the Netherlands; Norway; Thailand; and the United Kingdom. Four of these are operational in the seventy countries where CARE works: CARE US, CARE Australia, CARE Canada, and CARE Thailand. All CARE members raise funds for development and humanitarian work worldwide, and the operational units (country offices, regional management...

International Council on Human Rights Policy

International Council on Human Rights Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,918 words

...academic research into human rights sometimes seemed too theoretical to assist in the effective decision making of policy makers and practitioners. The First Steps The Swedish human rights expert Thomas Hammarberg , the Ford Foundation program officer Margo Picken , and the Australian academic and human rights expert Philip Alston visualized the contours of the institution that was to become the International Council on Human Rights Policy ( ICHRP , or the Council). In early 1994 they established a small international steering committee to take the...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,584 words

...large industrial states, Germany, Australia, and the United States, were 74 percent, 86.4 percent, and 81 percent, respectively. There is also still a marked tendency for women to leave full-time employment on becoming pregnant for the first time and to reenter the job market some ten years later, usually at a pay scale much lower than if they had remained at work. There are relatively few women in managerial-level posts: only 10.1 percent in Japan, compared to 37.3 percent, 37.3 percent, and 42.5 percent in Germany, Australia, and the United States,...

International Commission of Jurists

International Commission of Jurists   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,360 words

...Professor Louise Doswald-Beck , of Switzerland served two years as the ICJ's first woman secretary-general until 2003 . Her successor, Nicholas Howen of Australia, brought extensive legal experience from prior UN peacekeeping service in Angola and work for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights in Southeast Asia as well as experience as counsel at Amnesty International. John Dowd , an Australian judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, chaired an enlarged Executive Committee after 2002 as the ICJ developed improved ties to its national...

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