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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Australia Physical map Political map Melbourne Sydney Central Sydney Central Sydney...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The national flag was adopted in 1901. It includes the British Union Flag, reflecting Australia's historic links with Britain. In 1995, the Australian government gave legal recognition to the Native Australian flag and the Torres Strait Islander...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,365 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and overseas students who had completed their studies. Australia has an increasingly diverse population, but its most distinctive ethnic group are the original inhabitants—the Aborigines. In 2014 it was estimated that there were over 713,000 Aborigines, making up 3 per cent of the population. The Aborigine population is growing at twice the rate of the rest of the Australian population and is also significantly younger. They are the most marginalized part of Australian society: most live in desperate poverty, either in reserves in the outback or in...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
893 words
Illustration(s):
5

...New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia federated to create the Commonwealth of Australia. In 1911 , the Northern Territory joined the federation. A range of progressive social welfare policies were adopted, such as old-age pensions ( 1909 ). The federal capital was established ( 1927 ) at Canberra, Australian Capital Territory . Australia fought as a member of the Allies in both world wars. The Battle of the Coral Sea ( 1942 ) prevented a full-scale attack on the continent. Politics Post-1945 Australia steadily realigned itself with...

Australia Day

Australia Day   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
34 words

... Day Annual national holiday in Australia, celebrated on the Monday following January 26 . It commemorates the arrival of the First Fleet (carrying the first colonists) at Port Jackson, Sydney, on January 26, 1788...

Western Australia

Western Australia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
195 words

...Australia State in Australia, bordered by the Timor Sea (N), the Indian Ocean (W and S), South Australia state and the Northern Territory (E). The capital is Perth ; other major cities are Mandurah, Kalgoorlie, Bunbury, and Fremantle - Perth's main port. Western Australia was first visited by Dirck Hartog in 1616 , but settlement did not begin until 1826 , when a penal colony was founded. The first free settlement was in 1829 . The largest state in Australia, it was governed by New South Wales until 1831 , becoming a state of the Commonwealth of...

South Australia

South Australia   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
178 words

...Australia State on the Southern Ocean, s central Australia. The capital is Adelaide , home to 73% of the state's population. Inland is arid, mostly covered by sand and gibber desert and plains. It is the driest state in Australia (average rainfall 528mm) and most of the population live along the coast which has a Mediterranean climate. The Mount Lofty‐Flinders Ranges in the e are the main mountain system. Part of the Nullarbor Plain is in the w . The Murray , in the se , is the only important river. Lake Eyre is part of a series of vast salt lakes...

Australia

Australia: c. 50 million years ago - 2007  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Commonwealth of Australia Australia (New Holland, Terra Australis) The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names 2 Victorian era 1900s 20th century Politics British empire Australia and Oceania Empires 1901 1901 Australia passes an Immigration Restriction Act to underpin the White Australia policy White Australia policy A Dictionary of World History 2 Edwardian era 1900s 20th century Politics Migration War Australia and Oceania Society 1904 1904 John Christian Watson becomes Australia's first Labor prime minister, leading a minority government that...

Australian art

Australian art   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
197 words

...was established. The Australian landscape attracted a significant number of foreign painters, such as John Glover ( 1767–1849 ) and Conrad Martens ( 1801–78 ); however, Australian artists still felt the need to train in Europe. The late 19th-century Heidelberg School, based in Heidelberg, Victoria, represented the first truly national movement in Australian art. It was led by Tom Roberts , whose impressionist-inspired landscapes influenced Australian art for many decades. In the 20th century, the Melbourne journal Angry Penguins ( 1940–46 ) proved a...

Native Australians

Native Australians   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
138 words

...Australians Indigenous peoples of Australia. Originally from se Asia, Native Australians are thought to have colonized Australia 40,000–45,000 years ago. Before the arrival of Europeans ( c .1788 ) they probably numbered more than 400,000, but many thousands died from European diseases when they were placed in reserves. All the 500 tribal groups led a nomadic life, hunting and gathering. They believe that the land is a religious phenomenon, inhabited by spirits of their ancestors, and these beliefs are celebrated in legends, song, mime, carving and...

Australia and Oceania

Australia and Oceania: c. 50 million years ago - 2007  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...in English Fiction Australia 1923 1923 Vegemite is launched in Melbourne as Australia's answer to Marmite Vegemite The Oxford Companion to Australian History 1 rev 1920s 20th century Social and domestic Society Australia 1927 1927 The Australian parliament moves from Melbourne to a temporary Parliament House in the new federal capital at Canberra Canberra (Australian Capital Territory/Australia) The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names 2 1920s 20th century Politics Australia 1928 1928 In only his third Test match, 20-year-old Australian cricketer Donald...

Australian Capital Territory

Australian Capital Territory   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
61 words

... Capital Territory ( ACT ) ( Commonwealth Territory ) District within New South Wales but administratively independent of it. It contains the Australian capital, Canberra . The area was first settled in 1824 and was set aside as the capital territory in 1908 . In 1915 an additional 72sq km (28sq mi) were added, making a total of 2432sq km (939sq mi). Pop. ( 2001 est.)...

football, Australian rules

football, Australian rules   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
121 words

...Australian rules Type of football popular in Australia and Papua New Guinea. It is played over four 25-minute quarters between two teams of 18 players using an oval-shaped ball on an oval pitch 135–185m (440–600ft) long and 110–155m (345–504ft) wide. The ball may be kicked or punched, and although players can run with the ball, they must bounce it on the ground every 10m (33ft). The object of the game is to score points by kicking the ball between goalposts 6.4m (21ft) apart (six points). There are two other posts farther apart, one 6.4m (21ft) each...

Christmas Island

Christmas Island   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
379 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Island now has an Australian administrator and a shire council that is an electoral district within Western Australia. As the phosphate mine required investment to stop it becoming exhausted in the late 1980s, the Australian government transferred ownership to a private operator. The mine continues to work, and in 2013 its lease was extended to 2034 . It currently employs around 150 people plans proposed in 2016 to extend its area of operation, and hence its life, have been vigorously opposed by environmentalists; the Australian government is yet to...

Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
346 words
Illustration(s):
1

...are citizens of Australia; most of the rest are citizens of New Zealand. Over two-fifths of the population were born in Australia and a fifth in New Zealand. There is some agriculture and the island is self-sufficient in beef, poultry, and eggs, but the main source of income nowadays is tourism from Australia and New Zealand, though with around 26,000 visitors in 2014–15 , income was significantly down compared with a peak of around 40,000 visitors at the start of the century. Contemporary politics In 2015 , the Federal Australian parliament voted to...

Cocos Islands

Cocos Islands   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
359 words
Illustration(s):
1

...coconut plantations. Those on West Island are largely Australian government employees and their families. Though there is some fishing and horticulture, their main source of income is still coconuts. Most of their work is organized by the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society. The making of copra (dried coconut meat), the economic foundation of the islands, ceased in 1980 , and high unemployment has been a problem ever since. The islands came under Australian control in 1955 . In 1978 , the Australian government purchased most of the land owned by the...

Nauru

Nauru   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
520 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from the mines, often around Australian $80 million a year. At its peak the fund was worth Australian $1 billion. However, poor investments and excessive overspending by the government destroyed the fund. With phosphate deposits virtually exhausted and the mined land unusable, Nauru has found itself in desperate straits. By 2002 the country was declared virtually bankrupt, all the fund’s assets had to be sold to pay creditors, it and was having to be propped up by Australian aid, partly in exchange for which Australia was allowed to establish a...

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,374 words
Illustration(s):
2

...head a multiparty coalition. Australia provided help for the police force and the administration, but this was rescinded in 2005 , when the constitutional court declared this unconstitutional. This did little to establish law and order in the towns and rural regions of the country. The coalition was successful again in 2007 with Somare still in charge. Following the 2012 election, the parliament elected as prime minister Peter O'Neill of the People’s National Congress. In 2013 Papua New Guinea agreed to process Australian asylum seekers on the island...

New Zealand

New Zealand   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,270 words
Illustration(s):
2

...workers and investors, and, in recent years, to international students, especially from Asia. Equally there has been a smaller outflow of New Zealanders travelling to Europe or, more commonly, Australia. The economic downturn in Australia has changed that, however, and 2015 was the first year since 1991 that more New Zealanders migrants came from Australia than went to it. The earlier arrivals came around the 14th century. These are the Maori who are now a minority, almost all of whom live on North Island. ‘Maori’ is Maori for ‘normal people’, to distinguish...

Timor-Leste

Timor-Leste   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
995 words
Illustration(s):
2

...revenue from this source is declining faster than expenditure. The exploration of additional reserves was tangled up in boundary disputes with Australia that was finally resolved in 2018, which gave an immediate boost to the development of a major new field. The Timor-Leste government bought a share in the Sunrise field in the expectation that its LNG liquefaction plant in built on Timor-Leste and not in Australia. Construction may start in 2021 . There is a major drive to diversify the economy. At present much of the non-oil private sector is only...

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