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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australian English

Australian English   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
285 words

... English . 1 Most of the distinctive features of Australian English concern pronunciation, vocabulary, and idiom; there are few differences in the written or literary language. 2 pronunciation. The sound of Australian English is characterized principally by its vowels, which differ from those of BrE in several ways: the vowels of fleece, face, price, goose, goat , mouth all begin with rather open, slack sounds not unlike those used in Cockney speech; the vowels of dress, strut, start, dance, nurse have a much closer and tighter sound than in BrE....

Denizen Labels

Denizen Labels   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,443 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Manchester, England Mancunian Manila, Philippines Manilite Manitoba, Canada Manitoban Melbourne, Australia Melburnian Metz, France Messin Mexico City, Mexico Chilango Milan, Italy Milanese Montenegro, Yugoslavia Montenegrin Moscow, Russia Muscovite Naples, Italy Neapolitan Nazareth, Israel Nazarene New Brunswick, Canada New Brunswicker Newcastle, Australia Novocastrian Newcastle, England Geordie Newfoundland, Canada Newfoundlander, Newfie New South Wales, Australia New South Welshman Nice, France Niçois Norfolk, England North Anglian Northumberland, England...

Plain Language

Plain Language   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,284 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...where the relevant number of cents is less than 50—the other amount shall be reduced by the relevant number of cents; or (b) in any other case—the other amount shall be increased by the amount by which the relevant number of cents is less than $1. Income Tax Assessment Act [Australia] § 57AF(11), (12) (as quoted in David St. L. Kelly , “Plain English in Legislation,” in Essays on Legislative Drafting 57, 58 [David St. L. Kelly ed., 1988 ]). That is the type of prose that prompts an oft-repeated criticism: “So unintelligible is the phraseology of some...

Archaisms

Archaisms   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... David Belcher , “Source of the Sound That Goes with the Flow,” Herald (Glasgow), 10 Aug. 1995 , at 12. • “So ‘all the world's a stage’, says Shakes, but doth the world need another staging of Hamlet, say I?” Shannon Harvey , “Bell Rings Up an Accessible Hamlet,” West Australian , 5 Aug. 2015 , at 6. • “The Denver star receiver doth protest too much, methinks.” Mark Kiszla , “D.T. Isn't Catching a Lot of Respect,” Denver Post , 28 Aug. 2015 , at B1. Finally, even when the intent is to be humorous, one shouldn't betray an utter ignorance of how a...

Concord

Concord   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,925 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...teams, plural—e.g.: • “On the field, England were going through their ritual reincarnation . . . . England are beset by similar urges.” Kevin Mitchell , “Terrace Provides a Few Horse Laughs,” Observer , 25 July 1997 , Sport §, at 2. • “When the rain arrived yesterday, Australia were 201 runs ahead.” Graham Otway , “Aussies Turn the Screw,” Sunday Times (London), 27 July 1997 , § 2, at 1. Kingsley Amis defends this construction: “Anybody with a tittle of wit knows that country-plus-plural refers to a sporting event or something similar. This is...

Illogic

Illogic   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the patient's problem. • “Significantly, although industrial relations is regarded as more important than when the survey was last conducted, in September, it does not rate in the top 10 most dominant issues.” Michael Gordon , “Voters Swing Back to ALP on Issues,” Weekend Australian , 20– 21 Jan. 1996 , at 1. Insert the word now after important . Otherwise, it seems as if you’re comparing industrial relations to a given time. In fact, we’re comparing the importance of the issue then and now. For related issues, see best of all , better than any...

Sexism

Sexism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,728 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...If Weihofen were writing today, no doubt he would express himself in neutral language. Throughout the English-speaking world, writers’ awareness of sexism rose most markedly during the 1980s. In September 1984 , the Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department in Canberra, Australia, issued a press release entitled “Moves to Modify Language Sex Bias in Legislation.” The release states that “the Government accepts that drafting in ‘masculine’ language may contribute to some extent to the perpetuation of a society in which men and women see women as lesser...

veggie

veggie   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...; ✳vegie . Veggie (= a vegetable) is the standard spelling of the colloquialism for vegetable . It is a mid-20th-century clipped form that adds the diminutive suffix -ie ( see diminutives (g) ). ✳Vegie is an alternative spelling found primarily in Australia and New Zealand. The SOED notes that veggie or ✳vegie can also denote a vegetarian. See casualisms (c) . Current ratio:...

outbid > outbid > outbid

outbid > outbid > outbid   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...> outbid > outbid . So inflected. ✳Outbidden is an error confined mostly to BrE and Australian English—e.g.: “They admit to feeling plenty of pressure to find their dream home in the current market, having been outbidden [read outbid ] on numerous occasions.” Andrew Carswell , “House Price Frenzy,” Daily Telegraph , 2 Oct. 2013 , at...

indigenous

indigenous   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

.... In Canada and Australia, indigenous (= native to a place) is capitalized when it refers to the land's original inhabitants <the Indigenous tribes> but lowercase when it refers to other things <the indigenous flora> . This practice has not taken root in either the U.S. or the...

no worries

no worries   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
541 words

.... This Australianism, meaning “no problem” or “don't worry,” appeared first in the mid-1960s. The OED records a singular use from Sydney in 1965 : “ No worry . . . it's amazing what a few schooners of jolly does for a bloke.” The Australian National Dictionary records the plural no worries in a 1967 book by J. Hibberd entitled White with Wire Wheels : “‘Well. How was she?’ . . . ‘Who, Sue? No worries.’” Other uses are attested from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s. The actor and writer Paul Hogan popularized the phrase outside Australia in his...

aborigine

aborigine   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...but today aborigine is standard english as a singular noun. It predominates in print sources by a 2-to-1 ratio. ( Aboriginal is still current in adjectival uses.) The spelling Aborigine , with the initial capital, is traditional when referring to the indigenous peoples of Australia. Language-Change Index aborigine as a singular: Stage...

platypus

platypus   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
223 words

...Maddox , “Australia: Not That Boring,” N.Y. Times , 23 Feb. 1997 , § 7, at 11. • “The platypi [read platypuses ] of Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve will earn their free worms this autumn.” “Millennial Moments,” Canberra Times , 10 Mar. 1998 , at 7. • “ Platypi [read Platypuses ] were dissected in an attempt to show that they were fakes. We now know that platypi [read platypuses ] are indeed real animals and can explain their odd characteristics in the light of what we now know about the unique evolution of the animal life of the Australian land mass.”...

knit > knitted > knitted

knit > knitted > knitted   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
229 words

...has Andy MacPhail, without Ed Lynch mucking things up, simply knitted together an amazing patchwork quilt?” Jay Mariotti , “Cubs Are for Real,” Chicago Sun-Times , 7 May 2001 , at 91. • “Australia's fairy penguins are all set for winter and any oil spills after 1,000 tiny woolly sweaters were specially knitted and sent from as far away as Japan to the Australian island state of Tasmania.” Daily News (N.Y.), 27 May 2001 , at 44. The usual phrase is knitted brow , not ✳knit brow —e.g.: • “Akeara, Freeman's 7-year-old daughter, is sprawled on the...

budgerigar

budgerigar   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
153 words

...(= Australian parakeet) is a transliteration of an Aboriginal word common in BrE but rare in AmE, enough so that it is often accompanied by an explanation—e.g.: “[O]ver the years, I’ve seen performing pooches, Budgerigars (a small parrot) and any number of other tricked-up critters.” Chris Jones , “Feline Follies,” Chicago Trib . , 8 Dec. 2006 , On the Town §, at 1. More familiar to American ears is the shortened form, budgie —e.g.: “The English budgerigar , also known as a budgie , is a larger cousin of the common parakeet.” Greg Okuhara ,...

with

with   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
176 words

.... Avoid this sloppy construction—e.g.: • “Labor also has an edge on unemployment and welfare and social issues, with the Coalition considered better able to handle the environment, interest rates and taxation.” Michael Gordon , “Voters Swing Back to ALP on Issues,” Weekend Australian , 20– 21 Jan. 1996 , at 1. (A possible revision: Labor also has an edge on unemployment and welfare and social issues; the Coalition is considered better able to handle the environment, interest rates, and taxation .) • “We separated, with me carrying [read and I carried ]...

prevent

prevent   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
238 words

...the earth's atmosphere absorbs gamma rays and prevents them doing any damage to life or property here.” Clive Cookson , “Headed This Way from a Galaxy Near You,” Fin. Times , 17 May 1997 , at 2. (AmE would insert from after them .) • “That did not prevent him keeping Australia at bay at Lord's.” Rob Steen , “James Lets His Runs Do the Talking,” Sunday Times (London), 31 Aug. 1997 , Sports §, at 9. (AmE would insert from after him .) Prevent there causes verbose, awkward constructions—e.g.: • “This is likely to require some tightening in the...

palpable

palpable   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
238 words

...U.S. Despite Drop in Violence,” Boston Herald , 27 Oct. 2002 , News §, at 8. The word is occasionally confused with palatable (= [of food or drink] tasty; or [of a situation] acceptable)—e.g.: “As a foreigner, especially having come from the relative political docility of Australia, this tension was palatable [read palpable ], almost like he could smell it coming from the fear of the populace.” Gregory Paul Broadbent , On the Obsidian Sea 263 ( 2014...

equivalent

equivalent   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
187 words

...NFL coach will receive and approximately equivalent with [read equivalent to ] the $3 million a year that Pat Riley and John Calipari earn in the NBA.” “Sports Digest: Jets,” Baltimore Sun , 8 Feb. 1997 , at C2. As a noun, it almost always takes the preposition of <this Australian wine is an equivalent of a good, robust Burgundy> . Language-Change Index ✳equivalent with for equivalent to : Stage 1 Current ratio ( equivalent to vs. ✳equivalent with ): 112:1 B. A Malapropism: ✳equivocal with . Misusing equivocal for equivalent is a surprising ...

Labour Party

Labour Party   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
195 words

...Party ; Labor Party . In Great Britain, the spelling is Labour Party ; in Australia, the spelling is Labor Party . How should Americans spell the name of the British party? Most newspapers Americanize the spelling, making it Labor , but the better practice is to spell this proper name, like any other, the way the nameholder spells it—e.g.: • “Opposition leader John Smith died from a heart attack Thursday, creating a crisis for the Labor [read Labour ] Party just as it was looking strong enough to regain control of government.” “British Opposition...

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