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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The states of Australia have their colloquial names, not always complimentary: New South Wales: Ma State Northern Territory: Top End, White Elephant Queensland: Banana State South Australia: Wheat State Victoria: Cabbage Patch Western Australia: Westralia, Groperland Among the cities, Perth is called the Swan City, Adelaide, the City of Churches, and Melbourne, City of the Cabbage Garden. Australia Day 26 January, commemorating the first landing at Sydney Cove in 1788 . The Monday following has been a national holiday since the establishment of the...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... Australia Day a national public holiday in Australia, commemorating the founding on 26 January 1788 of the colony of New South Wales. See also Advance Australia...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
47 words

... [16th] Since the days of the ancient Greeks, travellers speculated on the existence of an ‘unknown southern land’, or in Latin terra australis incognita , from australis ‘of the south’. At first the continent was known as New Holland, and was not officially named Australia until 1824...

Advance Australia

Advance Australia   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Australia a catchphrase used as a patriotic slogan or motto in Australia, and recorded from the mid 19th century. Advance Australia Fair is the national anthem of Australia, composed c. 1878 by P. D. McCormick ( c. 1834–1916 ), a Scot, under the pen-name ‘Amicus’. It officially replaced ‘God Save the Queen’ in 1984...

White Australia policy

White Australia policy   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Australia policy . A policy that had its roots in the 19th-century Australian gold rushes, which attracted numerous Chinese workers. The presence of these immigrants led to resentment among white Australians, who feared competition and a lowering in their standard of living. Other resented immigrants included Japanese, Pacific islanders and East Indians. The desire for uniform immigration laws to exclude Asian immigrants was one of the factors that brought the colonies together into the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 . Federal laws soon followed to...

Australianism

Australianism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Australianism . A word, phrase, pronunciation, idiom, or other usage peculiar to, or particularly common in, Australia. Australianisms include loans from Aboriginal languages, such as kangaroo, wombat names of kinds of marsupial, and ‘national treasures’ such as cobber a companion, friend, ocker a rough and uncultivated Australian male. See australian english . ...

General Australian

General Australian   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...General Australian . A term, especially in linguistics , for the pronunciation used by most Australians. See australian english . ...

Australian Languages

Australian Languages   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Australian Languages . A term to refer to the collection of original (indigenous) languages from Australia: Today, Australian languages are dwindling rapidly, and many are projected to be extinct by the next generation. Losing these languages means a loss of diverse cultural and historical knowledge that has been accumulated over the past 80,000 years. Approximately 250 indigenous languages were spoken in Australia when British settlers arrived in the later 18c. Of the 150 languages used daily, approximately 13 are highly endangered. There are now only...

Australian English

Australian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,454 words

...Australian , and Cultivated Australian . Of these, Cultivated Australian most closely approaches British RP and Broad Australian most vigorously exhibits distinctive regional features. It is generally assumed that the Australian accent derives from the mixing of British and Irish accents in the early years of settlement. However, although most convicts and other settlers came from London, the Midlands, and Ireland, the influence of the original accents cannot be conclusively quantified. The present spectrum was probably established by the early 19c. The major...

Australian Pidgin

Australian Pidgin   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Australian Pidgin . A general name for contact varieties of English, used especially between the aboriginal peoples and European settlers from the late 18c, which spread from Sydney to other settlements. One of the most important, pidgin English in Queensland (also known as Queensland Canefields English and Queensland Kanaka English ) was used on the sugar plantations c. 1860–1910 . It appears to be descended from New South Wales pidgin , an early contact language taken north by explorers, convicts, and settlers, and spoken mainly by Melanesian indentured...

Australian Language, The

Australian Language, The   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Australian Language, The . The title of a book on Australian English by Sidney James Baker (1912–76), a New-Zealand-born journalist working in Sydney (1945, Angus & Robertson; 1966, revised, Currawong). Baker attempted to do what H. L. Mencken had done for AmE: establish the independence of the variety and find in it the fullness of an Australian cultural identity. Always tendentious, often idiosyncratic, frequently exasperating because assertive and undocumented, the work has none the less been popular and influential. Baker was interested primarily in...

Australian Language

Australian Language   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
749 words

...1890s, and New Zealanders have been known as Kiwis since shortly after that. The larrikin is one of the Australian stereotypes—the maverick with an apparent disregard for convention or the boisterous young man. The word could have been brought over from England—it is recorded in Cornish dialect in the 1880s—or based on Larry , a form of the man's name Lawrence common in Ireland and the Irish-Australian community. During the First World War, Australian and New Zealand soldiers were referred to as diggers , in the sense ‘miner’, which was used for gold and...

Australian Rules

Australian Rules   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

... Rules . A style of football played in Australia, and the closest form of football to Gaelic Football : in both games the ball can be caught and carried as well as kicked. An international series between Australia and an Irish national football team, using what are called Compromise Rules , was held for the first time in 1984 , the Irish team captained by Jack O'Shea ( see Jacko ). Such Compromise (or International) Rules games are the only occasion on which Gaelic footballers can be capped for their...

As Australian as a meat pie

As Australian as a meat pie   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Australian as a meat pie . Quintessentially Australian. Meat pies were long regarded as archetypal Australian fare, until the country discovered the joys of Pacific Rim cuisine towards the end of the 20th century. See also Pie-eater...

Limey

Limey   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...In US and (originally) Australian slang a British sailor or ship, or just a Briton. The nickname derives from the practice of issuing lime juice to a ship’s crew to combat...

Luck

Luck   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...allusion is to the game of snooker, in which each player’s turn is called a break, because it breaks the game up into stages. Lucky country A nickname for Australia, originating in the title of Donald Horne ’s The Lucky Country ( 1964 ), a critique of contemporary Australian society and a considered definition of the ‘Australian dream’. The name was originally intended ironically, and Horne saw Australia as ‘a lucky country run mainly by second-rate people who share its luck’. Lucky dip A tub or other container in which are placed various articles covered...

Art

Art   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...on the seashore, such as shells, are ready examples of the raw material of art trouvé . Art Union Originally, in Europe and Britain, an association formed to promote art by purchasing paintings and other works of art and dispersing them among the membership by lottery. In Australia and New Zealand, after a while, all kinds of prizes were offered and consequently the name came to be applied to a lottery with money prizes. Black art, The See under black . Britart See under brit . Byzantine art See under byzantine . Degrees in Arts See under degree ....

Never

Never   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Conservative prime minister ( 1957–63 ), included the words in a speech at Bedford ( 20 July 1957 ). Referring to the overall prosperity and general improvement of living standards, he said: ‘most of our people have never had it so good’. Never-Never, The The deep interior of Australia, far from European-based settlements. The term is first recorded in the 1830s. Since the publication of We of the Never-Never ( 1908 ) by Jeannie Gunn it has commonly been restricted in application to the Northern Territory. Its origins are unclear: it may be an alteration...

Nickname

Nickname   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...dust, corn flakes, goon, hog, loopy dust, rocket fuel National nicknames Among the best known, although some are dated and others are now derogatory, are: American: brother jonathan , yank or Yankee; for the USA personified: uncle sam ; in Australian rhyming slang, septic tank Argentinian: Argie Australian: aussie , digger , ocker , Ozzie Briton: Brit Canadian: canuck Chinese: Chink, Pong Costa Rican: Tico Dutchman: Dutchy, Mynheer Englishman: john bull , limey , pommy or Pommie French Canadian: Jean-Baptiste, Joe, Pea-souper Frenchman:...

London

London   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...city and the incident is mentioned in Shakespeare’s Henry VI, Pt II (IV, vii ( 1590 )). The stone was placed against the wall of St swithin ’s Church in 1798 as a safeguard against its destruction, but in 1960 it was moved to its present position. London to a brick An Australian expression denoting the longest possible odds, a dead cert. It dates from the 1960s. Great Fire of London, The See under great . Nine Worthies of London, The See under nine . Swinging London See under swing . Tower of London, The See under tower...

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