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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...journal and annual conference inform members. Both Australia's Open Garden Scheme and the Australian Garden History Society celebrate Australian gardening achievements. Australian garden style In the early 21st century, it is fair to suggest that no one style characterises or dominates Australian gardening. Within the country's extensive boundaries, eclecticism and adaptation are the key characteristics of Australians' gardens. With seven or more wildly varying climate zones, gardeners across Australia have different priorities. In Brisbane, summer humidity...

Australia

Australia  

The history of gardening in Australia chronicles a 200-year journey from the first European settlement in the singularly strange environment at Sydney Cove to the present day where gardens of ...
Heronswood

Heronswood   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Australian gardeners, specializing in offering hard-to-find plants. The Blazeys have been instrumental in reviving interest in both cottage gardening and heirloom vegetables, reintroducing many old cultivars both to Australian home gardeners and to commercial production. While Heronswood is primarily a perennial garden with a series of garden rooms featuring cottage flowers, vegetables, and perennials for a dry climate, many areas feature annual flowers and vegetables that thrive in Australia's hot summers. Clive Blazey's publications, The Australian...

Backhouse, James

Backhouse, James (1794–1869)   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...nursery in York in 1816 . From 1831 to 1838 James travelled in Australia, as a Quaker missionary and plant collector, sending plants back to Thomas ‘to test their hardiness in England’. James's account of his visit to the Australian colonies was published in 1843 . William Hooker ( see Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton ) (then director at Kew) honoured James Backhouse in 1845 by naming a genus Backhousia , evergreen trees and shrubs belonging to the myrtle family and native to Australia. Backhousia citriodora , commonly known as lemon ironwood, is one of...

Camden Park

Camden Park   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...imported exotics, then dispatching plants to nurseries and private growers in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia. These catalogues have become a significant source of information on plants available in the colony during this period. Macarthur's profuse correspondence, papers, and plans document his unique contribution to Australian garden history and ensure Camden Park's status as a significant site in Australian horticulture. Christine...

Canberra

Canberra   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...in the 1960s. Dame Sylvia Crowe designed the major lake shore precinct, Commonwealth Park. The Australian National Botanic Gardens on the slopes of Black Mountain offer opportunities for exploring a fine collection of Australian flora while the Garden of Australian Dreams at the National Museum of Australia's entrance, opened in 2001 and designed by Richard Weller ( b. 1963 ) and Vladimir Sitta ( b. 1950 ), is a challenging, thought-provoking space. From the snowy peaks of the Brindabella Ranges on the horizon to the golden pastures of summer or the...

Walling, Edna

Walling, Edna (1895–1973)   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...landscape of rustic simplicity, which remains today. Walling's own extensive writings over twenty years in Australian Home Beautiful magazine and her books— Gardens in Australia ( 1943 ), Cottage and Garden ( 1947 ), A Gardener's Log ( 1948 ), and The Australian Roadside ( 1952 )—introduced and fostered a new interest and taste in garden design in Australia. Many have also come to share Walling's pioneering enthusiasm for the Australian flora and her environmental concerns, which stimulated others to explore this field. Christine...

Cunningham, Allan

Cunningham, Allan (1791–1839)   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...the many collectors sent by Sir Joseph Banks to unexplored parts of the world. Cunningham arrived in New South Wales ( 1816 ) at a time when inland and coastal exploration of colonial Australia was intensifying. He travelled inland in 1817 with explorer John Oxley, collecting about 450 plant species, all unknown to science. Cunningham made several journeys around Australia ( 1817–22 ) in the survey ship Mermaid , always sending his enormous collections of seed and bulbs to Kew. In 1831 Cunningham was offered the post of colonial botanist. He declined the...

Murndal

Murndal   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...and Australia. A series of five artificial lakes, each flowing into the other, are surrounded by more elms, willows, holm oaks, pines, and monkey-puzzle trees. Somewhat surprisingly, these lakes are out of sight of the house. Unlike the English model, Samuel Pratt Winter did not embellish his domain with allegorical temples, and the agile deer likely to appear in an English landscape of the period have been replaced in the Australian context by the solidity of Hereford cattle. Murndal's designed landscape is thought to be the largest of its type in Australia and...

Eryldene

Eryldene   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...collection is considered Australia's most significant. A linguist by profession, Waterhouse became one of the world's foremost authorities on the camellia. He raised and named many popular varieties, founded Sydney's famous Camellia Grove nursery, and was president of the International Camellia Society. He was an authority on the history and nomenclature of early camellia cultivars. Hybrid camellias ‘E. G. Waterhouse’ and ‘Margaret Waterhouse’ are just two of the professor's successes that have remained popular with Australian gardeners since their...

Forest Lodge

Forest Lodge   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Lodge South Australia, Australia, is a late Victorian house in the Gothic manner, complete with castellated octagonal tower. Mining entrepreneur John Bagot constructed the house of local stone in 1890 . The elevated Adelaide Hills setting of house and garden offers some slight relief from the state capital's notorious summer heatwaves. To enhance the house, John Bagot laid out a garden within a typically Victorian framework of grottoes, bridges, and fountains. He visited Japan and returned to Australia with trees and varieties of camellias, introducing...

Shepherd, Thomas

Shepherd, Thomas   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Wales and Lectures on Landscape Gardening in Australia . They remain the first works published on gardening that relate to Australian conditions. They include descriptions of Lyndhurst at Glebe and Elizabeth Bay House , Alexander Macleay 's splendid garden. These descriptions were subsequently included in Loudon 's Encyclopaedia of Gardening ( 1840 edn.). Garden historians stress Shepherd's importance because he understood the grander attitudes to garden design, the first professional in Australia to do so. However, Shepherd's influence on the young...

Woolmers

Woolmers   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...the garden its strong structure. One is formed by the drive and related gateways; the second by paths, porches, and archways linking the house, stables, and orchard. Australian garden historians have noted that the design at Woolmers appears to have been heavily influenced by J. C. Loudon 's The Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion ( 1838 ). Recently, the National Rose Garden of Australia has been established at Woolmers, displaying examples of the recognized rose groups from historic to modern hybrids. The plan of the garden, alongside the river, is...

Melbourne

Melbourne   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Gardens ( 1840 ) and the King's Domain complete with floral clock, south of the river. The most recent addition is Birrarung Mar ( 2000 ), a riverside park which features spectacular use of Australian plants. The world heritage-listed Carlton Gardens, embracing the Royal Exhibition Building of 1880 , are the major example of 19th-century classicism in an Australian public garden, particularly evident in the imposing fountain, while the Fitzroy Gardens' elm avenue is the most famous of all Melbourne's tree-lined paths. However, the city's central garden...

Guilfoyle, William Robert

Guilfoyle, William Robert (1840–1912)   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...botanist, celebrated for his remarkable remodelling of Melbourne's Royal Botanic Gardens during his long directorship 1873–1909 . The Guilfoyle family migrated to Australia from England in 1853 —father Michael was a nurseryman who trained under Sir Joseph Paxton . In the following twenty years, Guilfoyle worked in the family's Sydney nurseries, collected plant specimens in eastern Australia, explored the South Sea islands, including Fiji, and helped grow sugar and tobacco on the family property in northern New South Wales. Through his travels, Guilfoyle...

Highfield

Highfield   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Tasmania, Australia, built 1832–5 as the residence for the Van Diemen's Land Company's first manager, Edward Curr, is an important site in Australian garden history, although little remains of the original garden today. Documents in VDL Company records describe Highfield, near the village of Stanley, in 1828 as situated ‘where Nature has done everything in variegating this place with hill and dale and making it the most picturesque and best adapted soil for habitation on the North Coast of this island’. An oil painting, c .1835 , shows the house...

Brownlow Hill

Brownlow Hill   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Hill , New South Wales, Australia, was the Macleay family's country estate near Camden, managed by Alexander Macleay 's younger son George after 1827 . The house, the property of the Downes family since 1858 , sits on a levelled shale knoll with dramatic views of the surrounding countryside and fertile river flats. The approach is via a driveway bordered by clipped box and overhung with large Chinese elms ( Ulmus parvifolia ); a low stone wall, set with urns, near the entrance gates acts as an edge to an elegant lily pond. This scene is charmingly...

Mawallok

Mawallok   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

..., Victoria, Australia, was laid out by William Guilfoyle in 1909 , the year of his retirement from the Melbourne Botanic Gardens. The 2.8-hectare/7-acre garden design is one of his last private works and perhaps his grandest. As in many 19th-century properties on the plains of western Victoria, the homestead and garden at Mawallok is surrounded by thickly planted belts of trees, especially conifers, creating an environment protected from the wind. Within this framework, Guilfoyle's plan was designed to complement the newly built homestead, a...

Macleay, Alexander

Macleay, Alexander (1767–1848)   Reference library

Christine Reid

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Alexander ( 1767–1848 ), Australian colonial politician who arrived in Sydney in 1826 to become New South Wales Colonial Secretary. Macleay, with interests in etymology, horticulture, landscape design, and botany and a foundation member of Sydney's Botanic Gardens, established two of the grandest gardens in the colony, one at his marine villa, Elizabeth Bay House overlooking Sydney Harbour, and a country estate, Brownlow Hill , near Camden. Macleay developed Elizabeth Bay as a celebrated landscape garden retaining the native bush and planting...

Banks, Sir Joseph

Banks, Sir Joseph (1743–1820)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

... ( 1774–1814 ) on the circumnavigation of Australia. Banks too was responsible for planning the Tahitian breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis ) voyage of Captain Bligh ( 1754–1817 ) and its subsequent second entirely successful voyage to the West Indies. In 1804 Banks with six friends formed what eventually became the Royal Horticultural Society . During his travels he made only two plant introductions (from Newfoundland) but his horticultural legacy is remembered in the naming of the Banksia genus of Australia. Maggie...

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