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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australian philosophy

Australian philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,131 words

...of the mental in preference to straight reductionism. The Adelaide-based arguments about materialism constituted a golden age in the development of Australian metaphysical realism—a position that still pervades much of contemporary Australian writing. Place left Australia in 1956 , but not until 1982 did the most significant Australian objection to the reduction of the mental to the physical appear, in Jackson's appealing thought experiment. Mary —a scientist with normal colour vision who has lived since birth in a black and white world—knows everything...

Australian philosophy

Australian philosophy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
New South Wales was claimed for Britain by Captain Cook in 1770, and a penal colony established there in 1788. Ninety-eight years later, the first chair in philosophy was established ...
Australian Rules football

Australian Rules football  

An eighteen-a-side game played on an oval pitch of indeterminate size for the duration of four quarters of 25 minutes each. The aim is to kick the oval ball between centre posts or behind posts at ...
tautology

tautology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
145 words

...means the natural hair colour, then a dark-haired girl who is fair because her hair is dyed fair could be fair but not a blonde, and then ‘fair-haired blonde’ is not a tautology. Tautology always depends on accepted definitions. When black, swanlike birds were discovered in Australia, there was doubt as to whether they could be ‘swans’— for swans were supposed to be white. But it was allowed that though black they were swans—so ‘black swan’ was no longer contradictory. Conversely, it is not now tautologous to call a swan white—though it would be if the...

Atheist Bus Campaign

Atheist Bus Campaign   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Atheism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
274 words

...worrying and enjoy life.’ were placed on, among other places, buses across the UK. The basic idea—typically copying the original advert’s aesthetics (font, colour scheme, etc.), though often modifying the actual message—has since spread to countries including the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Ireland, Finland, and Croatia. In Germany, one such ‘Atheist Bus’ was followed around the country by a similarly liveried ‘Christian Bus’ in response. In the UK, the Campaign received further publicity in light of the Advertising Standards Authority having received...

addiction

addiction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,709 words

...social damage. Research in Great Britain and Australia has shown that 15–20 per cent of hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from diseases or injuries directly or indirectly brought about by excessive indulgence in alcohol. As its consumption has increased, so have deaths from cirrhosis of the liver and the other diseases it causes, while psychiatric hospitals are familiar with the acute and chronic psychoses due to it. The social damage is not always recognized or acknowledged. In Great Britain, Australia, and the USA, for example, some 50 per cent...

National Endowment For the Arts

National Endowment For the Arts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,027 words

...members might otherwise fund riskier, experimental art. The concern to avoid a ministry of culture is echoed in other nations, such as Australia. Arts groups advocate that the government should continue to provide direct financial support to encourage artistic development and give greater access to the arts to all citizens, but without dictating a national cultural policy or artistic identity. The government's Australia Council uses a system of peer review and arm' s-length funding decisions strikingly similar to that of the NEA. Tax policy supports...

memory and context

memory and context   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,359 words

...both recall and recognition. Most of the instances we have discussed have been concerned with remembering words. However, there are clear and important examples of the role of intrinsic context in other areas, and in particular in the recognition performance of witnesses. The Australian psychologist Donald Thomson has extended the original verbal studies into this particular area, and has shown that the probability of a witness falsely identifying someone in an identification parade, as the person observed at the scene of a crime, can be dramatically...

psychopharmacology

psychopharmacology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,577 words

...derived from the substance iproniazid and the other from imipramine. Both groups of compounds have beneficial effects in depression, although these actions are usually less dramatic than those seen with the antipsychotic drugs. A remarkable discovery, made by Dr John Cade in Australia in 1949 , has been that the symptoms of mania can often be treated very effectively by administration of small doses of an inorganic salt—lithium carbonate. Continued treatment with lithium carbonate reduces the frequency of recurrence of manic episodes in individuals who would...

shell-shock

shell-shock   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,032 words

...its symptoms—was unsound. Old debates, about the importance of previous vulnerability and the role of intelligence, had resurfaced. But it seemed likely that PTSD was here to stay. (Published 2004) Ben Shephard Butler, A. G. (1943). ‘Moral and mental disorders …’. In The Australian Army Medical Services in the War of 1914–1918 , vol. iii. Kardiner, A. (1941). The Traumatic Neuroses of War . Shephard, B. (2000). A War of Nerves . War Office, (1922). Committee of Enquiry into ‘Shell-Shock’ . Young, A. (1995) The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing...

smell

smell   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,276 words

...of olfactory lateralization processes revealed by functional imaging: a review ’. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews , 25/2. Engen, T. (1982). The Perception of Odors . Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), 23–26 August 1983 (1984). Chemical Senses , 8/3. Voshall, L. B. (2003). ‘ Putting smell on the map ’. Trends in Neurosciences ,...

Head, Bessie

Head, Bessie   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,254 words

...vein, she greatly resisted attempts to categorize her writing as “African,” “feminist,” or “revolutionary,” and preferred instead to emphasize her inclusive philosophy. After 1976 , her fame spread as she visited the United States, West Berlin, Denmark, Holland, Nigeria, Australia, and England. Today, Bessie Head lies in an unmarked grave amid the trees and flowers of Botswana, but her words have carried her influence throughout the world. Bibliography Eilersen, Gillian Stead . Bessie Head: Thunder Behind Her Ears. Her Life and Writing . Portsmouth,...

Artist

Artist   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,305 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Labour Force Project to provide detailed benchmark data about individuals in the arts, the cultural industries, and the heritage sectors. In Australia, in 1982 the Australia Council mandated a Committee for the Individual Artists Inquiry chaired by cultural economist David Throsby. The committee's findings culminated in periodic surveys of individual artists, and occasional comparison of the results with Australian census data and data from other outside studies. Census-Based Research For most countries, the most logical place to look for information on...

art and visual abstraction

art and visual abstraction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
6

...paintings and in modern drawings. a. A battle of archers (eastern Spain), painted in simple axial lines of limbs and trunk signifying moving and shooting men. Red lines on grey rock. c.5000 bc . 10.5 × 12.0 cm. b. Running and dancing women drawn in simple line figures by Australian Aborigines. Red paint on grey rock. c. ad 1700(?). 50 × 150 cm. c. Modern drawing of a running and walking man with multiple axial lines of body and limbs. Pen black. c.6 × 10 cm. d. Sitting, standing, jumping, and running men, with slightly thickened orientated lines...

psychopathic personality

psychopathic personality   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,608 words

... Deviant Children Grown Up . Schneider, K. (1958). Psychopathic Personalities . Trans. M. W. Hamilton. Walker, N. (1965). ‘ Liberty, liability and culpability ’. Medicine, Science and the Law , Jan. Whitlock, F. A. (1967). ‘ Prichard and the concept of moral insanity ’. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry , 2. Wootton, B. (1959). Social Science and Social Pathology...

suicide: international statistics

suicide: international statistics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,797 words
Illustration(s):
1

...groups to the United States, the rank order of their suicide rates closely correlated with that of their home countries, despite the fact that they were being assessed by a completely different set of social agencies. This work has been broadly supported by other studies in Australia. Another study considered the effect of a change in coroner on the suicide rates for his district, arguing that if personal bias played much of a role, then a greater variation in rates should occur at such transitions than in control groups where the same individual remained in...

suicidal behaviour

suicidal behaviour   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,490 words

...themselves would use any method to hand and that lack of availability of one particular agent would scarcely make any difference. The facts, however, point in the contrary direction. Extensive research, including for example studies on immigrants from different countries to Australia, has shown that the mode of suicide is strongly influenced by cultural attitudes which appear to favour one method in preference to others. More recently the UK rates have resumed their upward trend. The role of cultural proscription or prescription has already been hinted at,...

thinkers, independent

thinkers, independent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,148 words

...polar entrance. (Congress declined, but it is on record that 25 members voted in Symmes's favour.) And in Germany, the present-day Society for Geocosmical Research believes that the earth is nothing more or less than the inside of a hollow globe; the sun is in the middle, with Australia and Britain on opposite sides, while the solid ground below our feet extends infinitely in all directions. Such examples of independent thought could be multiplied almost ad infinitum . There are those who believe the sun to be cold; those who fear that the accumulation of ice...

evolutionary psychology

evolutionary psychology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,361 words

...mates to invest in their children, whereas men's mate preferences might have evolved to solve the problem of selecting fertile mates. These predictions were then tested in a study involving 37 different cultures, ranging from the Zulu tribe in South Africa to coastal-dwelling Australians ( Buss 2003 ). The results confirmed predictions generated from these hypotheses—across cultures, women expressed a greater preference for mates who were high in status, ambition, industriousness, and financial prospects, whereas men expressed a greater preference for mates...

Mallarmé, Stéphane

Mallarmé, Stéphane (1842)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,564 words

...rhymes and its intermingled time sequences, and through the allusions provided by such visual clues as its white spaces and its typology. His poetry and his critical writing, as well as his conversation, reverberated worldwide through Symbolist poets in Belgium and Germany, Australia and South America. Readings of his poems inform central aesthetic debates in such widely differing novels as Marcel Proust 's À la recherche du temps perdu and Iris Murdoch 's The Philosopher's Pupil . Yet, there can be little doubt that his greatest impact has made itself...

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