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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australianism

Australianism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Australianism . A word, phrase, pronunciation, idiom, or other usage peculiar to, or particularly common in, Australia. Australianisms include loans from Aboriginal languages, such as kangaroo, wombat names of kinds of marsupial, and ‘national treasures’ such as cobber a companion, friend, ocker a rough and uncultivated Australian male. See australian english . ...

General Australian

General Australian   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...General Australian . A term, especially in linguistics , for the pronunciation used by most Australians. See australian english . ...

Australian Languages

Australian Languages   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Australian Languages . A term to refer to the collection of original (indigenous) languages from Australia: Today, Australian languages are dwindling rapidly, and many are projected to be extinct by the next generation. Losing these languages means a loss of diverse cultural and historical knowledge that has been accumulated over the past 80,000 years. Approximately 250 indigenous languages were spoken in Australia when British settlers arrived in the later 18c. Of the 150 languages used daily, approximately 13 are highly endangered. There are now only...

Australian English

Australian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,454 words

...Australian , and Cultivated Australian . Of these, Cultivated Australian most closely approaches British RP and Broad Australian most vigorously exhibits distinctive regional features. It is generally assumed that the Australian accent derives from the mixing of British and Irish accents in the early years of settlement. However, although most convicts and other settlers came from London, the Midlands, and Ireland, the influence of the original accents cannot be conclusively quantified. The present spectrum was probably established by the early 19c. The major...

Australian Pidgin

Australian Pidgin   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Australian Pidgin . A general name for contact varieties of English, used especially between the aboriginal peoples and European settlers from the late 18c, which spread from Sydney to other settlements. One of the most important, pidgin English in Queensland (also known as Queensland Canefields English and Queensland Kanaka English ) was used on the sugar plantations c. 1860–1910 . It appears to be descended from New South Wales pidgin , an early contact language taken north by explorers, convicts, and settlers, and spoken mainly by Melanesian indentured...

Australian languages

Australian languages   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
67 words

... languages Those indigenous to the continent, estimated to have been about 200 before the British invasion. Languages in an area covering most of the continent are classed as Pama-Nyungan on grounds, if nothing else, of structural similarities. Other languages are or were spoken in the north of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and are grouped as ‘Non-Pama-Nyungan’. A handful still have over 1,000...

Australian Languages

Australian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,591 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Australia , edited by Michael Walsh and Colin Yallop , pp. 97–106. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press. Austin, Peter . 1981. Switch-reference in Australia . Language 57.309–334. Blake, Barry J. 1977. Case marking in Australian languages . Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Blake, Barry J. 1987. Australian Aboriginal grammar . London: Croom Helm. Crowley, Terry , and R. M. W. Dixon . 1981. Tasmanian. In Dixon and Blake 1981, 394–421. Dench, Alan Charles . 1995. Martuthunira: A language of the Pilbara region of Western Australian ....

Australian Language, The

Australian Language, The   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Australian Language, The . The title of a book on Australian English by Sidney James Baker (1912–76), a New-Zealand-born journalist working in Sydney (1945, Angus & Robertson; 1966, revised, Currawong). Baker attempted to do what H. L. Mencken had done for AmE: establish the independence of the variety and find in it the fullness of an Australian cultural identity. Always tendentious, often idiosyncratic, frequently exasperating because assertive and undocumented, the work has none the less been popular and influential. Baker was interested primarily in...

Australian Languages

Australian Languages  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
About 250 languages were spoken in Australia at the time of the European invasion in 1788. More than half of them are no longer spoken or remembered, and of the ...
Australian Rules football

Australian Rules football  

An eighteen-a-side game played on an oval pitch of indeterminate size for the duration of four quarters of 25 minutes each. The aim is to kick the oval ball between centre posts or behind posts at ...
ELICOS

ELICOS   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...ELICOS ( English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students ) . The common name in Australia for courses in English as a foreign language. The ELICOS Association was founded in the early 1980s. ...

Aboriginal English

Aboriginal English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

.... A dialect of English spoken by Aboriginal people(s) in Australia, which sounds similar to australian english but differs in some semantic and pragmatic ways. It is sometimes referred to by their speakers as ‘home talk’. Some Aboriginals may refer to this dialect as blackfella English or blackfella talk , but this is not generally accepted as an appropriate term and its use may cause offense. Most varieties of Aboriginal English are intelligible to speakers of standard Australian English, though certain norms for the use of language are very...

Strine

Strine   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Alistair Morrison , to represent an alleged Australian pronunciation of Australian . Writing under the pseudonym Afferbeck Lauder (‘alphabetical order’) and as Professor of Strine Studies at the University of Sinny (Sydney), Morrison published a series of humorous articles in the Sydney Morning Herald , some of which were later collected under the title Let Stalk Strine (Sydney, 1965 ). The series made much of such features as elision ; assimilation , and metanalysis , as characteristic of Broad Australian: Emma Chisit How much is it?; money ...

Broken

Broken   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Broken ( Torres Strait Broken ) . The name given by its speakers to the English-based creole of the Torres Strait islands between Cape York in Australia and Papua New Guinea, known technically as Torres Strait Creole . ...

Australasian English

Australasian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

.../ɪ/ with /ə/. Australians now characterize New Zealanders as eating ‘fush and chups’, while New Zealanders return the compliment by hearing Australian ‘feesh and cheeps’. Phonologically inspired graffiti near Bondi Beach in Sydney run: NEW ZEALAND SUCKS, AUSTRALIA SEVEN . The merging of /ɪ + ə/ with /ɛ + ə/ in most speakers, so that ear and air become homophones, further reduces the phonemic inventory of nze . The rapidity of these changes has produced a distinctive age-grading in nze phonology. Observations suggest that some Australians may be...

Nauru

Nauru   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Nauru . A country of Oceania, an island of 8 square miles, and member of the commonwealth . Languages: Nauruan (official), English. A German colony since the late 19c, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate in 1920 and later a UN trust territory administered by Australia, gaining internal self-government in 1966 and independence in 1968 . ...

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the south-west Pacific, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and some 600 islands, the largest of which are New Britain, New Ireland, and Bougainville. Prior to independence in 1975 , the southern half (Papua) was an Australian colony and the northern part (New Guinea) was administered by Australia under a mandate from the United Nations given after the First World War, when it ceased to be a German colony. The island of New Guinea was peopled by different waves of migrants, whose history is largely unknown. The terrain is rugged....

Eal

Eal   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...English is the primary language, such as the UK, the US, and Australia. The ‘second’ refers to the order of acquisition; that is, it refers to learners whose first language is other than English. However, many learners of English may already speak more than one language. Thus, the term EAL can refer to the situation of learners who are learning English and who speak one or more languages. It is the term used to refer to English language learners in school contexts in the UK, Ireland, and Australia ( compare ell ). ...

English as an Additional Language

English as an Additional Language   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...English is the primary language, such as the UK, the US, and Australia. The ‘second’ refers to the order of acquisition; that is, it refers to learners whose first language is other than English. However, many learners of English may already speak more than one language. Thus, the term EAL can refer to the situation of learners who are learning English and who speak one or more languages. It is the term used to refer to English language learners in school contexts in the UK, Ireland, and Australia. Compare ell . ...

English English

English English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...two hundred million people speaking English nearly seven-tenths live in the United States, and another tenth in the British dominions are as much influenced by American as English English’ ( Spectator , 5 Feb. 1943 ); ‘Standard English English differs little from that used in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa’ (Peter Trudgill, Language in the British Isles , 1984 ). The usage was rare until the 1980s, when it began to be used in professional discussion. See anglo-english ; british english ; english in england ; standard english . ...

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