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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
770 words

...emigrants settled in Australia during the 19th century; perhaps about one‐eighth of these were transported. See Patrick O’Farrell , The Irish in Australia (1987) , and Colin Kiernan (ed.), Ireland and Australia (1984). See also E. Richards , A. Howe , I. Donnachie , and A. Graves , That Land of Exiles: Scots in Australia (1988). David T. Hawkings , Bound for Australia (1987), describes the range of sources that are available for the study of this emigration. See also The National Archives (TNA) research guide ‘Australia: Transportation to, ...

Family History

Family History   Quick reference

Anthony Camp

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...more so, and the bodies of information being collected are already showing the wider demographic uses of pure genealogy. A number of one‐name studies are being made by associations of people with the same surname. A Guild of One‐Name Studies was established in 1979 . In Australia, New Zealand, and America, where it is possible to identify the original immigrant, many associations of descendants have been formed and regular reunions take place. The publication of books containing the complete descendants of particular people in both male and female lines...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... (1969). The strike brought forward a ‘new unionism’ of the unskilled, and new leaders became prominent. One example of the latter, selected here because of the role which contact with the subject's family played in allowing his biographer to solve the mystery of a period in Australia, is in Chushichi Tsuzuki, Tom Mann, 1856–1941 ( 1991 ). Industrial disputes, and associated entanglements with the courts, were important in the ‘rise of labour’, as is seen in John Saville's essay ‘Trade Unions and Free Labour: The Background to the Taff Vale Decision’, in...

Tolpuddle Martyrs

Tolpuddle Martyrs   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
39 words

...Martyrs The six Dorset agricultural labourers who were sentenced to transportation to Australia in 1834 for being members of a secret society which aimed to improve their wages . They subsequently became symbolic heroes of the trade union ...

Barnardo's homes

Barnardo's homes   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
111 words

...kept at the University of Liverpool, where those over 100 years old may be consulted, by arrangement. Between 1874 and 1905 the photographic department of Dr Barnardo's homes took over 55 000 photographs of nearly all the children in the homes, many of whom emigrated to Australia and Canada . The archive now contains 500 000 images and 300 films. See John Kirkham , ‘ Barnardo's Photographic and Film Archive ’, Local History Magazine , 41 (1993). http://www.liv.ac.uk/library/sca/colldescs/lsh.html Archives of Barnardo's....

transportation of convicts

transportation of convicts   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
329 words

...transportation to Australia . The ‘First Fleet’ of 586 male and 192 female convicts, together with free settlers and seamen, set sail on 13 May 1787 and arrived the following January. New South Wales was formally declared a British colony on 26 January 1788 . Transportation ceased in 1868 , by which time it is estimated that about 162 000 convicts had been transported to the other side of the world. See David T. Hawkings , Bound for Australia (1987) , for an account of the available records in Britain and Australia. TNA has convict...

New Zealand

New Zealand   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
132 words

...Zealand Discovered by Tasman in 1642 and named after a province in the south‐west Netherlands. The islands were visited by Captain Cook in the 1770s, after which they became a British colony. Official emigration figures are usually linked with those for Australia. Many British and Irish emigrants went on government‐assisted passages. By 1840 only about 2 000 Europeans had settled in New Zealand, but during the next decade the number increased tenfold. New Zealand became self‐governing in 1852 and achieved dominion status within the British empire in...

Swing, Captain

Swing, Captain   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
320 words

...machines and the burning of barns and ricks. See E. J. Hobsbawm and George Rudé , Captain Swing (1969) , which calculated that, in all, 1 976 prisoners were tried by 90 courts sitting in 34 counties. Of those found guilty, nineteen were executed and 481 transported to Australia. Alan Armstrong , Farmworkers: A Social and Economic History, 1770–1980 ( 1988 ), stresses the economic causes of the troubles, for the labourers of southern England were poorer than their northern counterparts, having fewer chances of alternative work. Sixty per cent of all...

Canada

Canada   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
492 words

... guardians , and charities. Between 1825 and 1851 some 834 306 British people emigrated to Canada; indeed, during the 19th century Canada was the second most popular choice for migrants from the British Isles, except for a fifteen‐year period after the discovery of gold in Australia in 1852 . The Dominion of Canada was formed in 1867 (though Newfoundland did not join until 1949 ). The 1871 census revealed that 850 000 people, amounting to a quarter of the population of the new nation, claimed Irish ancestry; they were outnumbered only by the French...

food supply

food supply   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
561 words

...stability to prices. Population growth also meant more reliance on imported grain (except during the Napoleonic wars ). After the protective corn laws were repealed in 1846 , American grain was imported in huge quantities. Refrigeration also made possible imports of Australian and New Zealand lamb in the last quarter of the 19th century. The food supply was increasingly...

emigration

emigration   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
853 words

...came from Britain and Ireland. They came from every occupation and social class. The volume and the rate of emigration from Europe rose until the First World War and continued at a lower rate in the 1920s, but collapsed in the international depression of the 1930s. See also Australia; Canada; New Zealand; South Africa . Passenger lists are the most useful source for tracing individual emigrants. In some cases these lists give the age, occupation, and marital condition of emigrants, and the name of the community they have just left. Most of the lists of...

Tolpuddle Martyrs

Tolpuddle Martyrs   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
39 words

...Martyrs . The six Dorset agricultural labourers who were sentenced to transportation to Australia in 1834 for being members of a secret society which aimed to improve their wages. They subsequently became symbolic heroes of the trade union ...

Barnardo homes, Dr

Barnardo homes, Dr   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
76 words

...kept at the University of Liverpool, where those over 100 years old may be consulted, by arrangement. Between 1874 and 1905 the photographic department of Dr Barnardo's Homes took over 55,000 photographs of nearly all the children in the homes, many of whom emigrated to Australia and...

transportation of convicts

transportation of convicts   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
191 words

...bidders. Transportation to the American colonies continued until the War of Independence in 1776 . By then, an estimated 40,000 convicts had been transported to America. After 1776 British gaols began to get overcrowded. Parliament therefore authorized transportation to Australia. The ‘First Fleet’ of 586 male and 192 female convicts, together with free settlers and seamen, set sail on 13 May 1787 and arrived the following January. Transportation ceased in 1868 , by which time it is estimated that about 162,000 convicts had been transported to the...

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