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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
330 words

...Irish immigration peaked during the gold rush of the 1850s and fell off sharply after the 1880s. Reliance on assisted passage meant that settlement in Australia was determined less by pressures in Ireland than by the needs of the colony: there was, in particular, no great surge of migrants during the Great Famine . Closer official regulation may also help to explain why Irish settlers in Australia were more evenly distributed, both geographically and in terms of occupation and social status, than was initially the case in the United States and...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,053 words

... . The earliest Scotland–Australia references, such as those of Revd John Dunmore Lang (Greenock), Sydney's first Presbyterian minister in 1823 , were written to encourage 19th‐century emigration from Scotland to Australia, and promoted success stories of individual Scots. General histories of Australia up to the 1950s, however, made little differentiation between English and Scottish emigrants and did not recognize any measurable Scots influence. It was not until the 1960s and 1970s that a Scotland–Australia connection became a feature of ...

Australia Felix

Australia Felix   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
152 words

... (1848); the Australia Felix Monthly Magazine, published in Geelong (1848–49) ; and Isabella Bishops , Australia Felix: Impressions of Victoria (1877) . Henry Handel Richardson gave the title Australia Felix (1917) to the first novel in her trilogy, The Fortunes of Richard Mahony, and in 1970 , historical geographer J. M. Powell published The Public Lands of Australia Felix: Settlement and Land Appraisal in Victoria 1834–1891 . Helen...

Australia Day

Australia Day   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
277 words

... 1960 , and the recipients of Australian honours, are announced on the day. The 1988 Bicentennial celebrations, which culminated in an extravagant display of fireworks and tall ships on Sydney Harbour, were condemned by pro-Aboriginal groups, who launched the Treaty 88 Campaign and rallied behind slogans such as ‘white Australia has a black history’ and ‘40 000 years doesn't make a bicentennial’. The Australia Day Council has subsequently scouted alternatives to 26 January for Australia Day because of this sensitivity. K. S. Inglis outlined the...

Australia Council

Australia Council   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
179 words

...Board, the Literature Fund, the Performing Arts Board, and the Community Cultural Development Board. Opera Australia is funded separately. The allocation of grants and fellowships has sparked major divisions within the arts community. Several critics, led by poet Les Murray , attacked the Australia Council in 1994 for favouring particular writers; others criticised the council for allegedly subsidising an excessive quantity of Australian fiction, much of which failed to sell. The former director, Tom Shapcott , reviews the council's record of promotion and...

‘Australia Unlimited’

‘Australia Unlimited’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
159 words

...Australia Unlimited’ was the title of a book published by the writer and publicist E. J. Brady , in 1918 . It provided a description, with lavish photographic illustration, of the country's natural resources. Everywhere Brady travelled, he found ‘Wonder, Beauty, Unequalled Resource’. The collocation turned upside down the limited-liability provisions of company law to suggest that there were no limits to the productive potential of Australia. Furthermore, Brady argued that the lesson of the recent World War I was that Australia must become ‘the richest and...

New Australia

New Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
189 words

...Australia was the name of a utopian socialist settlement established by labour figure William Lane on a large area of land in Paraguay donated by the Paraguayan government. Lane founded the New Australia Movement in despair at the prospects of social reform in Australia in 1892 , following the maritime and shearers' strikes . He gathered a large number of supporters, including the poet Mary Gilmore , who travelled with him to Paraguay the following year aboard the Royal Tar . The settlement was envisaged as a communal, self-providing cooperative, but...

White Australia

White Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,423 words

...mid-1970s research on White Australia focused mainly on immigration policy, and neglected the lives of non-Europeans and the ideas which influenced policy. The authoritative work in the first half of the century was Myra Willard's History of the White Australia Policy , first published in 1923 and reissued several times. Interest in the White Australia ‘policy’ was revived in the 1960s, at the time of increasing calls for reform. Important studies published in these years include A. T. Yarwood , Asian Migration to Australia: The Background to Exclusion...

South Australia

South Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,513 words

...family. Women as artists, writers, mothers, farmers, and social reformers were prominent from the first, and their presence pervades South Australian history, contrary to the masculine images which still prevail in the history of Australia. A series of sesquicentennial histories, including Eric Richards (ed.), The Wakefield History of South Australia , appeared in 1986 ; a Wakefield Companion to South Australian History is scheduled for publication in 2001 . Susan...

Western Australia

Western Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,767 words

...by young Aborigines has been the imposition of mandatory prison sentences, attracting national criticism, which has been ignored. In 1960 Frank Crowley published a history of the state, Australia's Western Third . C. T. Stannage edited A New History of Western Australia (1981) , which contains a revealing essay by G. C. Bolton on the writing of Western Australian history. John...

Australia First Movement

Australia First Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
149 words

... First Movement was a right-wing nationalist organisation that emerged during the years of World War II; it was formed in Sydney in 1941 . Its fiercely xenophobic promotion of Australian literature and art—free from deference to British culture—was a preoccupation of one of its leading figures, P. R. Stephensen . But the movement's main platform was opposition to Australia's involvement in the war. It supported the defence of Australia at the expense of the Allies' coordinated war effort. The arrests of four people in WA charged with conspiring with...

Call to Australia

Call to Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
109 words

...to Australia , known in full as the Call to Australia Citizens Movement, is a conservative political party established in 1977 by the Rev. Fred Nile . The party takes an extreme conservative position on social issues. It promotes traditional family values and Christian morality, and condemns homosexuality, pornography, and abortion. Its policies are closely tied to the Festival of Light, a religious movement founded in 1973 , of which Nile is a director. Nile and his wife Elaine Nile were elected to represent the Call to Australia Party in the NSW...

Irish in Australia

Irish in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,655 words

...in Australia were ‘a founding people’ in its colonisation. This has become a standard proposition in Australian historiography. Though they were at all times only a small part of total emigration from Ireland, Irish immigrants were a higher proportion of the Australian population than in any other Irish migrant destination. Compared with the home populations, the Irish in Australia were over-represented among both the convict and assisted immigrants of the nineteenth century, and this was a recurrent cause of anxiety in the rest of the colonial community....

Germans in Australia

Germans in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,213 words

...separateness and religious exclusiveness caused no concern, although tension grew among German and British Australians after the formation of the German Empire in 1871 . The German clubs in the cities fostered the pan-Germanism encouraged by the Empire, and the German-language press promoted pride in Imperial Germany and its culture. It encouraged loyalty to Australia, rather than to Britain, and favoured Australian federation as a step towards Australian independence. The pro-German and pro-Boer stance of the press provoked anti-German feeling in the decade...

United Australia Party

United Australia Party   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
247 words

...Australia Party was formed during the political crisis of 1931 . It united the exhausted Nationalist Party with former members of the Australian Labor Party whose commitment to the financial economies introduced during the Depression had caused a second Labor Split , and new popular movements such as the All for Australia League that mobilised during the Depression to uphold financial and national honour. While the party's name signified a rejection of party and class divisions, its formation and composition reveal a conservative purpose. Behind...

Scots in Australia

Scots in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,101 words

...in Australia formed, until the last half-century, the third-largest immigrant intake after the English and Irish . Australia's Scottish-born population oscillated around 100 000 during the century after 1861 , peaking at 124 000 in 1891 , 132 000 in 1933 , and 160 000 in 1971 . Australia's rapid growth of population ensured, however, that the Scottish presence became less and less visible. In the mid-nineteenth century, about one Victorian in 10 had been in Scotland, with rather lower proportions elsewhere. By 1971 , Australia's record population of...

Chinese in Australia

Chinese in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
823 words

...between Australia and a family base in China. This rather fluid community, internally divided into different native-place associations, sought relations with both the host and the ancestral society. It celebrated Federation with public ceremony while actively supporting political parties in China. Saturday schools were organised for the instruction in Chinese of children who otherwise attended local state schools. Eric Andrews , Australia and China (1985) , and Lachlan Strahan , Australia's China (1996) , show improvement in Australian attitudes...

Jewry in Australia

Jewry in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,152 words

...In 1978 the published material dealing with Australian Jewry was limited and patchy. The most important works were the study by George Bergman and John Levi of the convict years and early free Jewish settlement, Australian Genesis (1974) ; Israel Getzler's study of the Australian chapter of the struggle for emancipation in the colonial period; Charles A. Price 's demographic study of Australian Jewry, ( 1964 ); and Peter Y. Medding's From Assimilation to Group Survival (1968) . The Australian Jewish Historical Society Journal , founded in ...

Australia (the name)

Australia (the name)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
207 words

... (the name) is an adaptation of terra australis incognita , a Latin term meaning ‘the unknown south land’. Ancient geographers, such as Ptolemy, had long suspected its existence. In 1606 the Spanish navigator Fernandez de Quiros glimpsed the continent which he piously named Terra Australis del Espiritu Santo. James Cook recognised the precedence of the Spaniards and Dutch navigators but believed de Quiros's discovery lay to the north-west of the coast he named New South Wales. The application of the anglicised version, Australia , to the whole...

Greeks in Australia

Greeks in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
829 words

...the civil war and the Junta years ( 1967–74 ), Greek-Australians tried to exert pressure on Greek governments via the Australian government. Since the 1980s, however, there have been attempts to harness the diaspora to advance Greek foreign policy, following the supposed success of the Greek-American lobby. The Keating government's tergiversations on the Macedonian question are credited to Greek-Australian lobbying, as is sustained Australian support for the Republic of Cyprus. While Greek-Australians are now patronised as model citizens, and the second...

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