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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

T. B. Millar Richard Nile (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,333 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Curtin insisted that Australia make its own declaration of war. Moreover, once the USA had entered the war and the UK's weakness in South-East Asia had been exposed, the Americans became the Australians' main ally. In his prime-ministerial message to the nation on 27 December 1941 , Curtin announced to the world ‘I make it quite clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom.’ The statement marked a turning-point in Australian history. From this point forth, Australia would put its role in...

Australia Station

Australia Station   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
215 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Station was the administrative term for the naval command based on Australian waters (see Map 4 on page 54). In the early years of the colony of New South Wales, ships based in these waters came under the control of the East Indies Station, but in 1859 the British Admiralty delineated a separate station, under the command of a commodore. The decision was in part a recognition of the circumstances in which a good part of the East Indies Station had been detached for duty in Australian waters, and reflected concerns about the strategic situation in the...

Australia (II), HMAS

Australia (II), HMAS   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... where, during an unsuccessful attempt to land General Charles de Gaulle , Australia, with two British destroyers, sank the Vichy French destroyer L'Audacieux and took part in the bombardment of Dakar harbour. During this action Australia 's Seagull V seaplane was shot down. Australia was serving in Australian waters when Japan entered the war and formed part of Vice-Admiral John Crace 's Task Force 44 during the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942 . From 1943 , Australia took part in bombardments prior to landings in New Guinea, the Netherlands...

Australia (I), HMAS

Australia (I), HMAS   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... (I), HMAS ( Indefatigable Class battle-cruiser). Laid down 1910 , launched 1911 ; displacement 18,800 tons; length 590 feet; beam 80 feet; armament 8 × 12-inch guns, 16 × 4-inch guns, 4 × 3-pounder guns, 2 × 18-inch torpedo tubes; speed 25 knots. HMAS Australia was the first capital ship built for the Commonwealth. It was designed to be the flagship of the Australian Fleet Unit which, with Australian agreement, could to be integrated into the main British fleet during wartime. On the outbreak of war in 1914 , Australia was involved in efforts...

Special Operations Australia

Special Operations Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Operations Australia ( SOA ) The Special Operations Executive ( SOE ) was a British organisation formed in June 1940 on the orders of Prime Minister Winston Churchill to conduct sabotage operations behind enemy lines and to encourage and assist occupied populations to do the same. When a senior SOE officer, Major Egerton Mott, escaped to Australia from Java in March 1942 , he met senior Australian officers and successfully lobbied for the establishment of an SOE-style organisation in Australia. SOE-Australia was formed in April 1942 with the...

Peacekeeping, Australia And

Peacekeeping, Australia And   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Australia And Australia has been a consistent supporter of multinational peacekeeping, most often under the auspices of the United Nations ( UN ). There have been Australian peacekeepers in the field continuously since 1947 , and for the last quarter of the twentieth century peacekeeping was by far the most significant form of Australian military engagement overseas. Australians have served in many roles in over 50 multinational peacekeeping operations, in nearly 30 theatres of conflict. A complete list of Australian peacekeeping missions is...

Australia First Movement

Australia First Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... First Movement was a curious and short-lived political grouping committed to Australian independence from Britain and united in opposition to involvement in the Second World War. It had its origins in the Victorian Socialist Party and the Rationalist Movement in the interwar period and published a journal— The Publicist —from 1936 under the editorship of the writer and publisher P. R. ‘Inky’ Stephensen . It existed formally as an organisation for just five months in 1941–42 . By this stage its earlier appeal to a diverse range of nationalist and...

North Australia Observation Unit

North Australia Observation Unit   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Australia Observation Unit (2/1st NAOU, the ‘Nackeroos’) was established on 11 May 1942 with the anthropologist Major W. E. H. Stanner ( 1905–1981 ) appointed commander. With headquarters at Katherine in the Northern Territory and responsibility for a vast area of Northern Australia, the NAOU's task was to patrol the northern coastal areas (usually on horseback) looking for signs of enemy activity, to man fixed coastwatch stations and to run a signals network for Northern Australia. At its peak strength the unit consisted of nearly 550 men, including...

Naval Association of Australia

Naval Association of Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Association of Australia was founded in Melbourne in November 1920 as the Ex-Navalmen's Association. Subsections were subsequently established in other States and the association adopted its current name in 1960 . By 1991 it had 85 subsections throughout Australia and was the largest organisation specifically representing serving and former Navy members. The association brings former and serving naval personnel together to support each other and works to protect their interests by making representations to government. It supports a strong Navy by...

British Army in Australia

British Army in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...complained of the hazards of Australian service— Colonel Breton of the 50th described Australia as ‘the worst country in the world for a soldier’—and in 1839 men of the 80th Foot mounted a short-lived protest over the curtailment of privileges. Whatever the difficulties they had faced in Australia, however, on moving to India at the end of their Australian service (the standard ‘tour’ throughout the period) the troops regretted leaving, anticipating in India the ravages of disease and war. Many officers retired to or in Australia, and soldiers purchased...

Japanese Attacks On Australia

Japanese Attacks On Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Attacks On Australia The Japanese advance southwards between December 1941 and February 1942 was rapid and unexpected. By the end of January 1942 Japanese forces had taken Rabaul in the Australian mandated territory of New Guinea, while in February Singapore capitulated and the 8th Division went into captivity. On 19 February 1942 Japanese aircraft bombed Darwin, inflicting heavy damage and killing 243 people ( see Darwin, Bombing of ). Thereafter, northern Australia was the target for Japanese air attack until September 1943 , bombs being...

Auxiliary Squadron, Australia Station

Auxiliary Squadron, Australia Station   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Squadron, Australia Station , was established under the provisions of the Australasian Naval Defence Act of 1887 ( see Anglo-Australian Naval Agreements ). The Australian and New Zealand colonial governments were to pay 5 per cent of the original cost of the ships plus the cost of maintenance and manning; in return they gained an assurance that, although the squadron would be under the control of the British C-in-C of the Australia Station , it would not be deployed outside the station without the colonies' consent. Seven vessels under...

Australia-New Zealand Agreement

Australia-New Zealand Agreement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...-New Zealand Agreement (the ‘Canberra Pact’), signed on 21 January 1943 on the desk used by Queen Victoria to assent to the Australian Constitution, asserted the right of the two dominions to participate in all decisions affecting the south and south-west Pacific. The two governments were concerned at their apparent exclusion from the councils of the great powers, most recently demonstrated by the Cairo Declaration of 1 December 1943 , in which the leaders of Britain, the United States and China (Churchill, Roosevelt and Chiang Kai-shek) made...

Sea Power Centre—Australia

Sea Power Centre—Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Power Centre—Australia The Australian Navy has always appreciated the need to develop a greater awareness of maritime issues and strategy within Australia's defence and civil communities. For too long, however, it expected this recognition to come through demonstrations of professional excellence rather than from actively ‘selling’ the service to a largely indifferent audience. The latter activity brought occasional accolades but yielded little in the way of real understanding. The problem became acute during the late 1980s when in the wake of the decision...

Vampire, De Havilland Australia

Vampire, De Havilland Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...De Havilland Australia (Single-seat fighter [FB 31]). Wingspan 38 feet; length 31 feet; armament 2 × 20-mm cannon, 8 × 60-pound rockets, 2000 pounds bombs; maximum speed 548 m.p.h.; range 1220 miles; power 1 × CAC Nene 5000-pound thrust turbojet. The Vampire was the RAAF's first operational jet and apart from three British-made evaluation aircraft, all RAAF Vampires were built by De Havilland Australia. The Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation made their Rolls Royce Nene engines under licence. The aircraft entered RAAF service in 1949 but production...

Special Operations Australia

Special Operations Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...(SRD). ‘Z special Unit’ administered its Australian personnel and is the name by which SOA is most commonly known in Australia. Until May 1943 , it also had a Dutch section, the head of which later ran Section III (Secret Intelligence and Special Operations) of the Netherlands Forces Intelligence Service (NEFIS) based in Melbourne. It operated principally within SWPA, but also had the remit to operate in Thailand and China. During 1942 SOA infiltrated parties to support guerrilla actions by Australian army units in Portuguese Timor and landed eight...

Prisoners of War in Australia

Prisoners of War in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...of War in Australia Though many ‘enemy aliens’ from Australia and overseas were interned in Australia during the First World War ( see Aliens, Wartime treatment of ), few if any were true prisoners of war. During the Second World War, however, the Australian government agreed in May 1941 to accept POWs from the Middle East, with the UK government taking financial responsibility. In May 1943 the government approved plans to transfer additional Italian prisoners to Australia from India. A total of 25,720 POWs were held in Australia during the Second...

Joint Chiefs Of Staff In Australia

Joint Chiefs Of Staff In Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Chiefs Of Staff In Australia ( JCOSA ) Formed at the end of 1945 as an advisory body for the oversight of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan, this was essentially the Australian Chiefs of Staff Committee augmented by senior representatives of the other contributing nations, Britain, India and New Zealand, supported by its own planning staff. The committee met in Melbourne, convening for the first time on 4– 5 December 1945 . The control and administration of BCOF were provided by the Australian chiefs of staff, and the C-in-C, BCOF,...

Strategic Debate in Australia 1945–2005

Strategic Debate in Australia 1945–2005   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...for Australia thus seemed almost as bleak to some analysts as it had done in early 1942 . This was the background against which the foundation of the Strategic and Defence Studies Centre ( SDSC ) has to be seen. Its creator was Dr T. B. Millar , who had been a young major in the Second World War before gaining a PhD at the London School of Economics and taking up an appointment in the Department of International Relations at the Australian National University ( ANU ). His first book, Australia's Defence ( 1965 ), and his later Australia in Peace...

Anzus (Australia, New Zealand and United States) Security Treaty

Anzus (Australia, New Zealand and United States) Security Treaty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to defend Australia. While a Council of Ministers was established to provide a forum for political exchanges, Australian hopes for access to the US Joint Chiefs of Staff were not realised; instead military consultation was to be between the Australian and New Zealand Chiefs of Staff and the C-in-C, Pacific. Australian-American security issues were also discussed in other forums, notably the South-East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) . Within these limitations, close defence ties developed between the three signatories, with Australia and New Zealand...

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