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Australia

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Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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1,755 words
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...Australia Overview A country whose society, economy, and politics until the 1960s were dominated first by its closeness to Britain as part of the British Empire and Commonwealth . Thereafter, Australians began to recognize more clearly the country's geopolitical closeness to Asia. Australia comprises the erstwhile British colonies of New South Wales (which became self-governing in 1855 ), Victoria ( 1855 ), Tasmania ( 1856 ), South Australia ( 1856 , including the Northern Territories ), Queensland ( 1859 ), and Western Australia ( 1890 ). These former...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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4,721 words
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...power of trade unions. [ See also Aborigines, Australian ; Prisons and Punishment, subentry Prison Colonies and Islands ; and Tasmania . ] Bibliography Atkinson, Alan . The Europeans in Australia: A History . 2 vols. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1997–2005. Australian Dictionary of Biography. 16 vols. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press; London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1966– . Bolton, Geoffrey , ed. The Oxford History of Australia . 4 vols. Melbourne, Australia, and New York: Oxford University Press,...

Nationalist Party, Australia

Nationalist Party, Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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132 words

...Nationalist Party, Australia With the official title of Australian National Federation, it was a conservative party formed in February 1917 by a merger between the National Labor Party and the Liberal Party . Emphasizing its commitment to World War I, it won a landslide victory in 1917 , with Hughes as Prime Minister. From 1922 , it depended on the parliamentary support of the Country Party ( see National Party ), whose leader, Page , demanded Hughes 's resignation because of his former prominence within the Australian Labor Party . Subsequently,...

United Australia Party

United Australia Party   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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...United Australia Party Australia's largest conservative party, it was founded in 1931 when some members of the Australian Labor Party ( ALP ) left out of opposition to the Scullin government, and joined the Nationalist Party under Hughes . Led by the former ALP member Lyons , it won an absolute majority in the 1931 elections, and from 1934 governed with the Country Party ( National Party ). Lyons's most important quality was his ability to keep the different sections of the loosely organized party together and galvanize their support during the...

White Australia Policy

White Australia Policy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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197 words

...White Australia Policy A policy established when responsibility for immigration passed to the newly created federal government of Australia in 1901 . Building on established anti-Chinese immigration restrictions, the aim was to maintain racial harmony, and to keep out Asians who might be willing to work at much lower wages. As a result, immigration was restricted to white immigrants from Europe, preferably from the British Isles. To enforce this, a dictation test for would-be immigrants was introduced in 1901 which could be in any European language (any...

Liberal Party, Australia

Liberal Party, Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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...Liberal Party, Australia Early history (up to 1949) The first Liberal Party emerged at national level from a fusion of anti-Labor parties (mainly Protectionists and Free Traders) under Deakin in 1909 . After brief spell in government it merged with the National Labor Party to form the Nationalist Party in 1917 . The Liberal name was revived for the new party that emerged from a fusion of most of the United Australia Party ( UAP ) and other groups to form Australia's largest and most successful conservative party. It was chosen for its associations...

National Labor Party, Australia

National Labor Party, Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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50 words

...National Labor Party, Australia A short-lived political party formed on 14 November 1916 after the expulsion of Hughes and his supporters from the Australian Labor Party over their support for conscription in World War I. It merged with the Liberal Party to form the Nationalist Party...

Democratic Labor Party, Australia

Democratic Labor Party, Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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107 words

...Democratic Labor Party, Australia A political party emerging from the Australian Labor Party in 1957 , sparked off by Evatt 's handling of the Petrov Affair , when some right‐wing members left the ALP in 1955 in opposition to what they considered its Communist, dogmatic leanings. Supported by the Catholic Social Movement and Mannix , its overreliance on the Catholic vote and its fixation upon the single issue of anti‐Communism meant that the party was unable to gain more than a few Senate seats, even though at times it held the balance of power there....

National Party of Australia

National Party of Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
264 words

...Also known as the Nationals, the party functioned as the junior partner in a governmental coalition under John Howard , Tony Abbott and Malcolm Turnbull , emphasizing its significance as the voice of Australians living beyond the metropolitan areas. http://nationals.org.au/ The Nationals, the official site of the National Party (Australia...

Aborigines, Australian

Aborigines, Australian   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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2,102 words
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...within indigenous communities. [ See also Australia ; Empire and Imperialism, subentry The British Colonial Empire ; and Native Peoples . ] Bibliography Arthur, Bill , and Frances Morphy , eds. Macquarie Atlas of Indigenous Australia . North Ryde, Australia: Macquarie Library, 2005. Attwood, Bain . In the Age of Mabo: History, Aborigines, and Australia . St. Leonards, Australia: Allen and Unwin, 1996. Chesterman, John , and Brian Galligan . Citizens without Rights: Aborigines and Australian Citizenship . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University...

National Labor Party, Australia

National Labor Party, Australia  

A short‐lived political party formed on 14 November 1916 after the expulsion of Hughes and his supporters from the Australian Labor Party over their support for conscription in World War I. It merged ...
Labor Party, Australian

Labor Party, Australian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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926 words

...Western Australia ( 1904–5 ) and Southern Australia ( 1905–9 ). Success at the federal level followed, with the ALP forming its first national governments under Watson in 1904 , and then under Fisher ( 1908–9 , 1910–13 , 1914–15 ). While these governments established the ALP's credentials as a party that could be entrusted with power, they were relatively weak, since for the most part they were minority governments and faced a hostile Senate. The party was fundamentally split over the issue of compulsory military service overseas for Australia's effort...

Casey, Richard Gavin Gardiner, Baron

Casey, Richard Gavin Gardiner, Baron (29 Aug. 1890)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
229 words

..., 17 June 1976 ) Australian Governor‐General 1965–9 Educated at the Universities of Melbourne and Cambridge, Casey served in the Australian Imperial Force during World War I at Gallipoli and in France. Casey returned to Melbourne to take up his father's business interests in 1919 , and he befriended Bruce , whose political agent he became upon his appointment as Australia's liaison officer in London in 1924 . He returned to Australia in 1931 and was elected to the House of Representatives for the United Australia Party . He became Lyons 's...

ANZAC

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
104 words

...ANZAC ( Australian and New Zealand Army Corps ) Formed in World War I, it was associated primarily with its landing at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915 and the following unsuccessful battle of attrition, in which it lost more than 10,000 soldiers. Subsequently, the term has been used as shorthand for Australian and New Zealand forces during the rest of World War I and World War II. Since 1916 , 25 April has been commemorated as ANZAC Day in Australia and New Zealand. The Gallipoli campaign, in which Australians and New Zealanders had no national interest,...

Spence, William Guthrie

Spence, William Guthrie (7 Aug. 1846)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
167 words

...1846 ; d. Terang, Victoria, Australia , 13 Dec. 1926 ) Australian trade unionist Born on one of the Scottish Orkney islands, his family arrived at Geelong (Victoria) in 1852 . A pivotal figure in the Australian trade-union movement , he helped found a number of unions until he became secretary of the Amalgamated Miners' Association ( 1882 ) and of the Amalgamated Shearers' Union ( 1886 ). He was a moving force behind the formation of the Australian Workers' Union, which for a long time was the biggest single Australian trade union. He was its...

Monash, Sir John

Monash, Sir John (27 June 1865)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
168 words

...offensive in July. With his troops he also took a leading part in the last Allied counter-offensive in August 1918 . After the war Monash organized the harmonious repatriation of 160,000 Australian soldiers. His reputation in the 1920s as perhaps the greatest living Australian reflected upon Australia's Jewish community as a whole, as it helped make anti-Semitism publicly unacceptable. He was Vice-Chancellor of Melbourne University ( 1923–31 ), and Victoria's second university is named after...

Bruce, Stanley, 1st Viscount Bruce of Melbourne

Bruce, Stanley, 1st Viscount Bruce of Melbourne (15 Apr. 1883)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
229 words

...Melbourne (b. Melbourne , 15 Apr. 1883 ; d. London , 25 Aug. 1967 ) Prime Minister of Australia 1923–9 Educated in his native Melbourne, he spent his formative years in England, studied at Cambridge, and became a barrister. Bruce served in the British forces at Gallipoli and in France during World War I. He returned to Australia in 1917 , and was elected to the House of Representatives for the Nationalist Party ( 1918–29 ) and the United Australia Party ( 1931–3 ). He served briefly as federal Treasurer before succeeding Hughes as Prime...

Hawke, Robert

Hawke, Robert (9 Dec. 1929)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
444 words

...South Australia , 9 Dec. 1929 ; d. Northbridge, Australia , 16 May 2019 0 leader of the Australian Labor Party and Prime Minister of Australia 1983–91 Hawke was born to religious parents, his father a Congregational clergyman and his mother a teacher who saw messianic qualities in her son. From the University of Western Australia, Hawke won that state's Rhodes scholarship to Oxford. He joined Australian Labor Party in 1946 . After distinguishing himself as a tenacious and sophisticated workers' advocate with the Australian Council of Trade...

ANZAC

ANZAC   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
926 words

...with Australian national identity. Australian wartime speechmakers compared Anzacs to the legendary heroes of Troy, reputedly sited near the Dardanelles, investing the term Anzac with a mythical status. Such rhetoric is still invoked at Australian Anzac Day ceremonies, the most sacred national day. The Anzac Day Dawn Service, a quasi-religious ritual of public mourning, began modestly in the 1920s but now attracts huge numbers to ceremonies in Australia and New Zealand. Expatriates and overseas service personnel also commemorate the day. In Australia it was...

Christmas Island

Christmas Island   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
215 words

...has been administered by Australia. In 1985 , the island established its first local assembly and in 1994 the islanders voted overwhelmingly in a referendum against independence. As the phosphate mines became exhausted, the Australian government transferred ownership to a private operator and a new lease was signed in 1998 . Plans to secure the mine’s future by enlarging it, proposed in 2016, have been vigorously opposed by environmentalists, and the Australian government is yet to make a decision. Since 2000 Australia has operated an offshore...

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