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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to reassert themselves in the 1820s and 1830s as the shock of the French Revolution began to abate. By 1835 the Whig Colonial Secretary, Lord Glenelg ( 1778–1866 ), could acknowledge the futility of choosing ‘any one Church as the exclusive object of public Endowment’ in Australia, and the Colonial Office discouraged plans for the further endowment of Anglican rectories in Upper Canada. It is a measure of the limits of the alliance between the imperial government and Anglicanism after 1776 that nowhere in the empire was the Church of England formally...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...while the north-west passage, the goal of his third voyage, would have enabled more direct access to Asian trade. The importance of these commercial aims was obscured to some degree by the fact that Cook's findings in both cases were negative, though the settlement of Australia followed from the charting of the east coast on the first voyage, and exploration in other regions, such as West Africa, was more obviously directed toward the opening up of trade routes [ see *empire, 5 ]. The Earl of Sandwich, first Lord of the Admiralty, in a meeting with...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the corpses of the poor, and which then enacted the repressive Irish Coercion Act ( 1833 ), the detested New Poor Law ( 1834 ), and a Municipal Corporations Act ( 1835 ) which deprived many working people of their local franchise and which colluded in the transportation to Australia of trade unionists like the Tolpuddle Martyrs ( 1834 ) and Glasgow Cotton-Spinners ( 1836 ). The Chartist National Petition of 1837 asserted that ‘the Reform Act has effected a transfer of power from one domineering faction to another, and left the people as helpless as...

Cook, James

Cook, James (1728–79)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... 1758 and 1762 and subsequently surveyed around Newfoundland. However, he became famous for the three Pacific voyages of 1768–71 , 1772–5 , and 1776–80 . On the first, accompanied by Joseph *Banks , he observed the transit of Venus from Tahiti and charted the eastern Australian coast. His second voyage aimed to establish whether or not a great southern continent existed, and the third sought a north-west passage. The findings with respect to both the continent and the passage were negative, but the voyages were enormously important culturally for...

postal system

postal system   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...for intercepting mail for domestic and international surveillance [ see *spies and spy system ], blocked a number of potential improvements. It was with the greatest difficulty that Rowland Hill ( 1795–1879 ), a former schoolteacher and sometime commissioner to South Australia, introduced the second portentous reform in postal services in 1839 . He instituted a scheme for a uniform penny post on letters weighing half an ounce, funded by prepaid adhesive stamps. This facilitated the transmission of cheap mail all over Britain irrespective of distance....

mapping

mapping   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... in Asia and the Pacific acquired new commercial and strategic significance. Mapping the Americas and the Pacific also expanded cultural horizons through the opportunities it provided for the creation of visual and written accounts of ‘other’ landscapes and peoples. In Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, for example, surveyors were often the principal source of knowledge about the life-ways and cultures of indigenous peoples. Maps were also instrumental in the coalescence of national identity in Britain and Ireland. The Jacobite uprisings of 1745–6 ...

missionaries and missionary societies

missionaries and missionary societies   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...endeavours from other professions and respectable trades. Missionary work also provided an important outlet for the idealism and creative energies of middle-class women. Evangelical missionaries established extensive networks and native churches in India, China, the Pacific, Australia, and New Zealand throughout this period, and many were instrumental in the long campaign leading to the abolition of *slavery [6] . This achieved, missionaries redoubled their efforts to Christianize Africa, and crusades were organized to convert the *Jews and Catholics in...

botany

botany   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...came through geographical expeditions. These introduced a large number of new species, initiating a rage for choice specimens and providing the foundations of national herbaria and museum collections. Many of these exotics came from government voyages of *exploration [37] to Australia, the Cape, and the South Seas. Living plants could be seen at Kew Gardens (royal property until 1841 ), Chatsworth, or Syon Park near Chiswick. Enterprising private societies like the Royal Horticultural Society (founded in 1804 ) similarly sponsored collectors and ran...

Duane, William

Duane, William (1760–1835)   Reference library

Nigel Little

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Jefferson (New York, 1989). Rosenfeld, R. N. American Aurora: A Democratic Republican Returns (New York, 1997). Wilson, David A. United Irishmen, United States: Immigrant Radicals in the Early Republic (Dublin, 1998). Nigel Little Edith Cowan University, Western Australia See also: duane, margaret hartman markoe bache ; jefferson, thomas ; newspapers ; paine, thomas...

landscape painting

landscape painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
1,539 words

...by Turner , Richard Westall ( 1765–1836 ), William Collins ( 1788–1842 ), Peter de Wint ( 1784–1849 ), and others were published as Picturesque Views of the Southern Coasts of England between 1814 and 1826 . These were complemented by Joseph Lycett 's Views in Australia ( 1824–5 ) and Thomas and William Daniell 's Oriental Scenery ( 1795–1808 ). In contrast to this exoticism, Constable and the Norwich painters concentrated on local landscapes, representing them in a variety of ways from the antiquarian to the ‘Dutch’. Turner took advantage...

Banks, Sir Joseph

Banks, Sir Joseph (1742–1820)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...'s Beagle voyage and Huxley 's Rattlesnake expedition. As president of the Royal Society Banks was himself to foster such expeditions, being particularly active in promoting Flinders 's Investigator expedition of 1801 , which had as its object the circumnavigation of Australia. The return of the Endeavour in 1771 brought Banks public adulation and the admiration of George III ; it was the beginning of a long association with the King which enabled Banks to utilize royal patronage for the benefit of science. One immediate outcome of this fruitful...

Colonialism

Colonialism   Reference library

Bruce P. Lenman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...They had not inherited the word “colonialism” because it does not seem to have come into use before the latter part of the nineteenth century, often being applied to any distinctive linguistic or social usage developed by white inhabitants of self-governing colonies, like the Australian ones. Its prominence and pejorative connotation dates from the early twentieth century. Lenin, trying to explain the bankruptcy of Karl Marx’s forecast of the inevitable self-destruction of capitalism, took up the ideas of the radical English under-consumptionist economist John...

Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights   Reference library

Howard Schweber

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...described the IXth Amendment as an “inkblot,” and no case in constitutional law has ever been decided based on a right guaranteed by the IXth Amendment. The idea of a bill of rights has been extremely influential. While not all later constitutions contain an equivalent—the Australian Constitution, for example, has none—most constitutions adopted in the twentieth century feature a bill of rights, often directly based on the American model. Many of these go farther than the American original, extending their protections to include “third generation” social...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

Katherine A. Hermes

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the voyage. Cook’s curiosity and ambition made him the consummate explorer, and his skills as a cartographer, honed over a decade in North America mapping the eastern coast of Canada, enabled him to produce valuable maps for the British of New Zealand and the eastern coast of Australia. On Cook’s subsequent voyages (in 1772–5 and 1776–9 ), he was again accompanied by scientists and artists. On the final voyage, Cook explored the western coastline of North America, as his charge was to find the elusive Northwest Passage. His ventures into Alaska, over thirty...

South Seas

South Seas   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,880 words

...liberally scattered the names of British monarchs and ministers upon the new lands but also claimed possession of so-called unoccupied lands for the British crown. Australia, for this purpose, was declared unoccupied, or terra nullius (“no one's land”), because definitions of what constituted occupation were based on European concepts of agricultural cultivation. The European settlement of Australia, Nicholas Thomas has written, was founded “less in Enlightenment science than in violent dispossession.” Through the Lens of Enlightened Thought There is still...

Banks, Joseph

Banks, Joseph (1743–1820)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
888 words

... voyage of exploration, which set sail in 1768 under the command of James Cook . The primary object of this voyage was to travel to Tahiti to observe the transit of Venus, but it also provided an opportunity to map the little-known lands of New Zealand and New Holland (Australia). The work of Banks and Solander, who accompanied him along with a party of draftsmen and servants, gave the voyage further scientific importance: Much of the flora and fauna of the South Seas was made known to the naturalists of Europe. Banks also assiduously recorded the...

Cook, James

Cook, James (1728–1779)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,914 words

...then turned south to search for the great continent. With only one ship, the Endeavour , and without the loss of a single man from scurvy, Cook put more than five thousand miles of previously unknown coastline on the map. The twin islands of New Zealand, the eastern coast of Australia, and Torres Strait emerged from the mists of uncertainty. The public saw the voyage through the eyes of John Hawkesworth , who fused the journals of Cook and Banks into a single narrative to make the Endeavour expedition the resounding climax to his best-selling Voyages of...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,717 words

...voyager; few were as intrepid as Restif de la Bretonne's, Victorin, who, in La Découverte australe par un homme volant ( Southern Discovery by a Flying Man , 1781 ) flitted between a variety of utopias in a pedal-operated flying machine before arriving at the ultimate Australian utopia of Megapatagonia. The most popular German language utopia, Johann Gottfried's Insel Kelsenburg ( 1731–1743 ), belongs in this category. Often, however, the favored location of a utopia was in North America. Cleveland, the eponymous hero of a novel by the abbé Prévost...

Scientific Expeditions

Scientific Expeditions   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,782 words

...of our planetary system as it was then known. Tahiti, first encountered by Europeans in the person of John Wallis in 1767 , was a convenient astronomical observatory in the Southern Hemisphere; in addition, it and Cook's other Pacific stopping points, such as New Zealand and Australia, gave Cook's traveling companion, the self-funded gentleman-botanist Joseph Banks , and his party an opportunity to add greatly to the store of known and described flora and fauna. Cook and Banks set a standard for scientific exploration that was emulated on Cook's two...

Mapping

Mapping   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,010 words

...visitors who wanted to know if Sakhalin was a peninsula or an island (and who would then add such new geographical knowledge to the world map), and a culture for whom the concept map and the idea of mapping were simply foreign. In the Pacific, in British India, and in Australia, no less than in northern Canada and in Gaelic Scotland, the processes of Enlightenment mapping were in several ways reliant on native peoples as guides, interpreters, and suppliers, but indigenous toponyms, knowledge, and the peoples themselves were usually excluded from the...

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