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Overview

Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Ian TYRRELL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
2,771 words

...the Great Depression of the 1930s hit Australia as hard as it did Germany and the United States. Australia sought and received imperial preference tariffs that tied the nation even closer to the British. The growing threat of the Japanese did likewise. Australia relied on the British navy to repel this threat. But the fall of Singapore to the Japanese in World War II forced Australia to look to the United States after a call from the new Labor government. Hundreds of thousands of American troops passed through Australia, and the two nations fought to repel the...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,755 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Australia Overview A country whose society, economy, and politics until the 1960s were dominated first by its closeness to Britain as part of the British Empire and Commonwealth . Thereafter, Australians began to recognize more clearly the country's geopolitical closeness to Asia. Australia comprises the erstwhile British colonies of New South Wales (which became self-governing in 1855 ), Victoria ( 1855 ), Tasmania ( 1856 ), South Australia ( 1856 , including the Northern Territories ), Queensland ( 1859 ), and Western Australia ( 1890 ). These former...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
5,644 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In all ways but one, Australia is now legally independent of the United Kingdom. The exception is that Australia is still a monarchy: the Queen of the United Kingdom is also the Queen of Australia. In a 1999 referendum, the Australian people rejected the opportunity to become a republic. The passage of the Australia Acts had a strong influence on the shape of the country's judge-made law. In 1986 , the High Court decided that the abolition of appeals to the Privy Council meant that no Australian court should any longer feel bound to follow the...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
770 words

...emigrants settled in Australia during the 19th century; perhaps about one‐eighth of these were transported. See Patrick O’Farrell , The Irish in Australia (1987) , and Colin Kiernan (ed.), Ireland and Australia (1984). See also E. Richards , A. Howe , I. Donnachie , and A. Graves , That Land of Exiles: Scots in Australia (1988). David T. Hawkings , Bound for Australia (1987), describes the range of sources that are available for the study of this emigration. See also The National Archives (TNA) research guide ‘Australia: Transportation to, ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
330 words

...Irish immigration peaked during the gold rush of the 1850s and fell off sharply after the 1880s. Reliance on assisted passage meant that settlement in Australia was determined less by pressures in Ireland than by the needs of the colony: there was, in particular, no great surge of migrants during the Great Famine . Closer official regulation may also help to explain why Irish settlers in Australia were more evenly distributed, both geographically and in terms of occupation and social status, than was initially the case in the United States and...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,053 words

... . The earliest Scotland–Australia references, such as those of Revd John Dunmore Lang (Greenock), Sydney's first Presbyterian minister in 1823 , were written to encourage 19th‐century emigration from Scotland to Australia, and promoted success stories of individual Scots. General histories of Australia up to the 1950s, however, made little differentiation between English and Scottish emigrants and did not recognize any measurable Scots influence. It was not until the 1960s and 1970s that a Scotland–Australia connection became a feature of ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,721 words
Illustration(s):
2

...power of trade unions. [ See also Aborigines, Australian ; Prisons and Punishment, subentry Prison Colonies and Islands ; and Tasmania . ] Bibliography Atkinson, Alan . The Europeans in Australia: A History . 2 vols. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1997–2005. Australian Dictionary of Biography. 16 vols. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press; London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1966– . Bolton, Geoffrey , ed. The Oxford History of Australia . 4 vols. Melbourne, Australia, and New York: Oxford University Press,...

Australia

Australia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
942 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and in the south‐west corner of Western Australia. Economy Australia’s economy is based on mining, agriculture, and industry. Agricultural land, which is periodically devastated by drought, accounts for 64% of Australia’s territory, almost all of this being devoted to cattle and sheep. Australia is a leading world producer and exporter of wool, beef, wheat, coal, iron ore, aluminium, and other metals. Manufacturing industry is aimed principally at domestic markets. There is also a large service sector. History Australia was first inhabited by Aborigines ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,659 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in Australia, 1788–1850 . Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1984. Caine, Barbara , ed. Australian Feminism: A Companion . Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1998. Gothard, Jan . Blue China: Single Female Migration to Colonial Australia . Carlton South, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 2001. Grimshaw, Patricia , Marilyn Lake , Ann McGrath , and Marian Quartly . Creating a Nation . Rev. ed. Perth, Australia: API Network 2006. Kingston, Beverley . My Wife, My Daughter, and Poor Mary Ann: Women and Work in Australia ....

Australia

Australia   Reference library

T. B. Millar Richard Nile (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,333 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Curtin insisted that Australia make its own declaration of war. Moreover, once the USA had entered the war and the UK's weakness in South-East Asia had been exposed, the Americans became the Australians' main ally. In his prime-ministerial message to the nation on 27 December 1941 , Curtin announced to the world ‘I make it quite clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom.’ The statement marked a turning-point in Australian history. From this point forth, Australia would put its role in...

Australia Felix

Australia Felix   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
152 words

... (1848); the Australia Felix Monthly Magazine, published in Geelong (1848–49) ; and Isabella Bishops , Australia Felix: Impressions of Victoria (1877) . Henry Handel Richardson gave the title Australia Felix (1917) to the first novel in her trilogy, The Fortunes of Richard Mahony, and in 1970 , historical geographer J. M. Powell published The Public Lands of Australia Felix: Settlement and Land Appraisal in Victoria 1834–1891 . Helen...

Australia Day

Australia Day   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
277 words

... 1960 , and the recipients of Australian honours, are announced on the day. The 1988 Bicentennial celebrations, which culminated in an extravagant display of fireworks and tall ships on Sydney Harbour, were condemned by pro-Aboriginal groups, who launched the Treaty 88 Campaign and rallied behind slogans such as ‘white Australia has a black history’ and ‘40 000 years doesn't make a bicentennial’. The Australia Day Council has subsequently scouted alternatives to 26 January for Australia Day because of this sensitivity. K. S. Inglis outlined the...

Australia Council

Australia Council   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
179 words

...Board, the Literature Fund, the Performing Arts Board, and the Community Cultural Development Board. Opera Australia is funded separately. The allocation of grants and fellowships has sparked major divisions within the arts community. Several critics, led by poet Les Murray , attacked the Australia Council in 1994 for favouring particular writers; others criticised the council for allegedly subsidising an excessive quantity of Australian fiction, much of which failed to sell. The former director, Tom Shapcott , reviews the council's record of promotion and...

‘Australia Unlimited’

‘Australia Unlimited’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
159 words

...Australia Unlimited’ was the title of a book published by the writer and publicist E. J. Brady , in 1918 . It provided a description, with lavish photographic illustration, of the country's natural resources. Everywhere Brady travelled, he found ‘Wonder, Beauty, Unequalled Resource’. The collocation turned upside down the limited-liability provisions of company law to suggest that there were no limits to the productive potential of Australia. Furthermore, Brady argued that the lesson of the recent World War I was that Australia must become ‘the richest and...

New Australia

New Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
189 words

...Australia was the name of a utopian socialist settlement established by labour figure William Lane on a large area of land in Paraguay donated by the Paraguayan government. Lane founded the New Australia Movement in despair at the prospects of social reform in Australia in 1892 , following the maritime and shearers' strikes . He gathered a large number of supporters, including the poet Mary Gilmore , who travelled with him to Paraguay the following year aboard the Royal Tar . The settlement was envisaged as a communal, self-providing cooperative, but...

White Australia

White Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,423 words

...mid-1970s research on White Australia focused mainly on immigration policy, and neglected the lives of non-Europeans and the ideas which influenced policy. The authoritative work in the first half of the century was Myra Willard's History of the White Australia Policy , first published in 1923 and reissued several times. Interest in the White Australia ‘policy’ was revived in the 1960s, at the time of increasing calls for reform. Important studies published in these years include A. T. Yarwood , Asian Migration to Australia: The Background to Exclusion...

South Australia

South Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,513 words

...family. Women as artists, writers, mothers, farmers, and social reformers were prominent from the first, and their presence pervades South Australian history, contrary to the masculine images which still prevail in the history of Australia. A series of sesquicentennial histories, including Eric Richards (ed.), The Wakefield History of South Australia , appeared in 1986 ; a Wakefield Companion to South Australian History is scheduled for publication in 2001 . Susan...

Australia Station

Australia Station   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
215 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Station was the administrative term for the naval command based on Australian waters (see Map 4 on page 54). In the early years of the colony of New South Wales, ships based in these waters came under the control of the East Indies Station, but in 1859 the British Admiralty delineated a separate station, under the command of a commodore. The decision was in part a recognition of the circumstances in which a good part of the East Indies Station had been detached for duty in Australian waters, and reflected concerns about the strategic situation in the...

Western Australia

Western Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,767 words

...by young Aborigines has been the imposition of mandatory prison sentences, attracting national criticism, which has been ignored. In 1960 Frank Crowley published a history of the state, Australia's Western Third . C. T. Stannage edited A New History of Western Australia (1981) , which contains a revealing essay by G. C. Bolton on the writing of Western Australian history. John...

Australia First Movement

Australia First Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
149 words

... First Movement was a right-wing nationalist organisation that emerged during the years of World War II; it was formed in Sydney in 1941 . Its fiercely xenophobic promotion of Australian literature and art—free from deference to British culture—was a preoccupation of one of its leading figures, P. R. Stephensen . But the movement's main platform was opposition to Australia's involvement in the war. It supported the defence of Australia at the expense of the Allies' coordinated war effort. The arrests of four people in WA charged with conspiring with...

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