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Australia

Subject: History

Australia has been establishing stronger links with Asia—but has been unable to shake off the British monarchy Australia's landmass—which can be viewed as the world's largest ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Ian J. McNiven

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,659 words

...people in Australia for 40,000 years has entered mainstream culture in Australia, a point enshrined by the listing of Lake Mungo as a World Heritage Area in 1981 . Getting Professional and Political. The 1960s and 1970s was a period of increased community awareness and interest in preserving Australia’s heritage, with a range of organizations established—the Australian Council of National Trusts ( 1965 ), Australian Conservation Foundation (1966), Australian Heritage Commission ( 1974 ), and the World Heritage Convention (ratified by Australia in 1974 )....

Roonka Flat, Australia

Roonka Flat, Australia   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
179 words

...Flat, Australia [Si] A multi‐phase Aboriginal open‐air occupation site and burial ground on an elevated terrace of the Murray River in South Australia. The earliest use of the site dates back to about 16 000 bc , with fairly extensive evidence of occupation and two burials. Later, between 5000 and 2000 bc , the area was used mainly as a burial ground. Finally, from 2000 bc down to the 19th century ad , it was again used for settlement as well as burial. More than 100 burials are known from excavations, including flat graves with either dorsal or...

Kow Swamp, Victoria, Australia

Kow Swamp, Victoria, Australia   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
175 words

...Swamp, Victoria, Australia [Si] An early burial ground close to the Murray River, Victoria, southern Australia, excavated by Alan Thorne from 1968 to 1972 . Dating to between 11 000 bc and 7000 bc , the 40 individual burials represent a range of practices, while the skeletal material represents an anatomically robust population that lies outside the extremes of the range of recent Aboriginal populations. Some stone tools consisting of quartz flakes and bipolar cores are typical of the period but shed little light on the origins and associations of the...

Kenniff Cave, Queensland, Australia

Kenniff Cave, Queensland, Australia   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
136 words

...Cave, Queensland, Australia [Si] A rock‐shelter situated in the sandstone hills of eastern central Queensland which contains one of the longest and most complete cultural sequences in Australia. Excavations by John Mulvaney (1925–2016) in 1962 revealed deposits spanning the period 17 000 bc through to 550 bc . The stone tools from the lowest levels through to about 3000 bc comprised steep‐edge flake scrapers and cores. Between 3000 bc and 550 bc there was an extensive assemblage of Australian Small Tool Tradition. Pieces of ochre were...

Australia and New Guinea

Australia and New Guinea   Reference library

Brian M. Fagan, Jim Allen, Peter Hiscock, and Graham Connah

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
5,784 words

...Peoples, Archaeology and: Archaeology and Australian Aborigines . ] Flood, Josephine . Archaeology of the Dreamtime: The Story of Prehistoric Australia and Its People , rev. ed., 2004. Hiscock, Peter . Archaeology of Ancient Australia , 2008. Lourandos, H. Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory , 1997. Peter Hiscock Australia and New Guinea: The Archaeology of European Settlement in Australia Although Dutch and British ships had been wrecked on the coasts of Australia during the seventeenth and eighteenth...

Lake Mungo, New South Wales, Australia

Lake Mungo, New South Wales, Australia   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
126 words

...Mungo, New South Wales, Australia [Si] An early occupation site beside the former Willandra Lakes in the arid region of New South Wales. Surveys by J. M. Bowler in 1968 and 1969 revealed midden deposits associated with stone tools belonging to the Australian core tool and scraper tradition dating to between 23 000 and 30 000 years ago. Fossilized skeletal material representing three individuals was found, some of it suggesting deliberate cremation. The Willandra Lakes started to dry up about 15 000 years ago and with growing aridity the area became...

Laura rock art, Queensland, Australia

Laura rock art, Queensland, Australia   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
120 words

...rock art, Queensland, Australia [Si] A complex of Aboriginal rock paintings and peckings in caves and rock‐shelters around Laura on Cape York. The motifs represented include paintings and engravings of animals, tracks, and abstract symbols. Charcoal from occupation layers in the Early Man Rock‐Shelter which cover the paintings and peckings has been radiocarbon dated to the period c .13 000 bc to 10 000 bc , making these amongst the earliest examples of rock art in Australia. The shelter was used down into recent times and the latest images present...

Uluru (Ayers Rock), Northern Territory, Australia

Uluru (Ayers Rock), Northern Territory, Australia   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
180 words

...(Ayers Rock), Northern Territory, Australia [Si] A huge monolithic rock outcrop protruding from the sandy red plains of central Australia, traditionally believed by Aboriginal Yankuntjatjara and Pitjantjara communities to have been built of mud by spirits in the Dreaming. It has become the focus of many beliefs and traditions, its folds, indentations, protuberances, and overhangs, and the billabongs around its base being held to reflect the activities of its creators: cooking, eating, digging, hunting, and fighting. Originally part of an Aboriginal reserve...

Kenniff Cave, Queensland, Australia

Kenniff Cave, Queensland, Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]A rock‐shelter situated in the sandstone hills of eastern central Queensland which contains one of the longest and most complete cultural sequences in Australia. Excavations by John Mulvaney in ...
Kow Swamp, Victoria, Australia

Kow Swamp, Victoria, Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]An early burial ground close to the Murray River, Victoria, southern Australia, excavated by Alan Thorne from 1968 to 1972. Dating to between 11 000 bc and 7000 bc, the 40 individual burials ...
Roonka Flat, Australia

Roonka Flat, Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]A multi‐phase Aboriginal open‐air occupation site and burial ground on an elevated terrace of the Murray River in South Australia. The earliest use of the site dates back to about 16 000 bc, with ...
Australian Archaeological Association

Australian Archaeological Association   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
75 words

... Archaeological Association ( AAA ) [Or] Founded in Perth in August 1973 , the AAA is now one of the largest archaeological organizations in Australia, with a diverse membership of professionals, students, and others with an interest in the subject. The Code of Ethics recognizes multiple interests in the cultural heritage, and specifically acknowledges the rights and interests of indigenous peoples. Since 1974 the AAA has published the journal Australian Archaeology . http://www.australianarchaeologicalassociation.com.au Membership organization...

Australian Small Tool Tradition

Australian Small Tool Tradition   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
103 words

... Small Tool Tradition [CP] Stone tool assemblages characteristic of hunter‐gatherer communities across Australia, but not Tasmania, during the period 3000 bc through to European contact. The tool types represented include hafted implements, such as Bondi points, a range of bifacial and unifacial points and projectile tips, microliths in geometric forms, and a variety of blade‐based items. There is considerable spatial variation in the composition of the Australian Small Tool Tradition, and its unity and integrity has been called into question. The...

Lake Mungo, New South Wales, Australia

Lake Mungo, New South Wales, Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]An early occupation site beside the former Willandra Lakes in the arid region of New South Wales. Surveys by J. M. Bowler in 1968 and 1969 revealed midden deposits associated with stone tools ...
Laura rock art, Queensland, Australia

Laura rock art, Queensland, Australia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]A complex of Aboriginal rock paintings and peckings in caves and rock‐shelters around Laura on Cape York. The motifs represented include paintings and engravings of animals, tracks, and abstract ...
Australian Small Tool Tradition

Australian Small Tool Tradition  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[CP]Stone tool assemblages characteristic of hunter‐gatherer communities across Australia, but not Tasmania, during the period 3000 bc through to European contact. The tool types represented include ...
Australian Archaeological Association

Australian Archaeological Association  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
(AAA)[Or]Founded in Perth in August 1973, the AAA is now one of the largest archaeological organizations in Australia, with a diverse membership of professionals, students, and others with an ...
Australian Rules football

Australian Rules football  

An eighteen-a-side game played on an oval pitch of indeterminate size for the duration of four quarters of 25 minutes each. The aim is to kick the oval ball between centre posts or behind posts at ...
Stewart, James Rivers Barrington

Stewart, James Rivers Barrington (1913–1962)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
591 words

... Stewart, James Rivers Barrington ( 1913–1962 ), Australian archaeologist born in Sydney and educated at the King's School, Parramatta; Leys School, Cambridge; and Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge, where he studied archaeology and anthropology, graduating in 1934 . He was awarded the Wilkin Studentship to Asia Minor in 1935–1936 . Stewart excavated with William Flinders Petrie at Tell el-῾Ajjul in Palestine in 1933 ; at Baba Koy, Turkey, with Kurt Bittel in 1935 ; with Winifred Lamb at Kusura, Turkey, in 1936 ; and he...

Rowe, Alan

Rowe, Alan (1891–1968)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
664 words

... Rowe, Alan ( 1891–1968 ), British archaeologist and Egyptologist . Born in Horshonds, Essex, England, Rowe spent his early years in Australia. Between 1922 and 1928 he worked at Beth-Shean on the Palestine Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania Museum. He was director from 1925 to 1928 . Rowe uncovered a series of Canaanite temples, which he partially published In 1940 . Full publication and reanalysis of the Beth Shean excavations has lowered the dates and produced a new evaluation of much of the material (Kenyon, 1970 ,...

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