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Ammonios

(᾽Αμμώνιος), teacher and commentator on Aristotle; born Alexandria late 5th C., died after 517. Ammonios imbibed paganism from his philosophically minded parents; after the death ...

Ammonios

Ammonios   Reference library

Barry Baldwin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
167 words

... (᾽Αμμώνιος), teacher and commentator on Aristotle ; born Alexandria late 5th C., died after 517 . Ammonios imbibed paganism from his philosophically minded parents; after the death of his father Hermeias, his mother took him and his brother to Athens to study under Proklos . His studies complete, Ammonios returned home where, except for some time in Constantinople, he remained as a lecturer on Plato and Aristotle . Photios ( Bibl. , cod.187) vouchsafes his reputation in astronomy and geometry. He is variously praised and damned for his paganism,...

Ammonios

Ammonios  

(᾽Αμμώνιος), teacher and commentator on Aristotle; born Alexandria late 5th C., died after 517.Ammonios imbibed paganism from his philosophically minded parents; after the death of his father ...
Damaskios

Damaskios  

(Δαμάσκιος), or Damaskios Diadochos, last scholarch of the Academy of Athens; born Damascus ca.460?, died after 538. Damaskios both studied and taught rhetoric at Alexandria, also studying Plato with ...
Olympiodoros of Alexandria

Olympiodoros of Alexandria  

Neoplatonist philosopher; born ca.500, died after 564/5.A pupil of Ammonios, Olympiodoros (᾽Ολυμπιόδωρος) taught philosophy in Alexandria and achieved fame as the “Great Philosopher.” His ...
Simplikios

Simplikios  

(Σιμπλίκιος), philosopher who studied under Ammonios at Alexandria and Damaskios at Athens; born Cilicia 6th C.Some time after Justinian's interference with the Academy of Athens in 529, Simplikios ...
Eutokios

Eutokios  

(Εὑτόκιος), commentator on mathematical works; born Ascalon ca.480.A contemporary of Ammonios and Anthemios of Tralles, Eutokios was active in Alexandria and perhaps Constantinople in the early 6th ...
Zacharias Rhetor

Zacharias Rhetor (465/6)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
86 words

... *church history (covering 450–91 ), a *biography of *Severus of Antioch , lives of Isaias and Peter the Iberian (only fragments preserved), and a *dialogue against pagan philosophy ( Ammonios ). See also byzantium ; hagiography . Michael A. Grünbart E. W. Brooks , Historia ecclesiastica Zachariae Rhetori vulgo adscripta (1953). M. M. Colonna , Ammonio ...

Zacharias of Mytilene

Zacharias of Mytilene   Reference library

Barry Baldwin and Sidney H. Griffith

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
371 words

...a chronicle in 12 books, called Accounts of Events that Have Happened in the World , compiled by an anonymous monk at Amida in 569 . Indeed, most of his works are extant only in Syriac texts, the exceptions being the De mundi opificio or Ammonios , a polemic in dialogue form against the pagan philosopher Ammonios , in which the question of the eternity of the cosmos is debated (P. Merlan, GRBS 9 [ 1968 ] 193–203); a fragment from an anti-Manichaean tract is also in Greek. His biography of his fellow pupil, Severos of Antioch , provides a fascinating...

Lexika

Lexika   Reference library

Robert Browning

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
365 words

...as well as a Lexikon of Synonyms by pseudo- Ammonios , which distinguished between words of similar meaning. Byz. lexika are of interest both for their information on Byz. attitudes and for the fragments of lost classical and later works which they contain. ed. Delatte , AnecdAth 2:273–454. Hunger , Lit. 2:33–50. Lemerle , Humanism 263–65, 343–45. A.B. Drachmann , Die Überlieferung des Cyrillglossars (Copenhagen 1936). W. Böhler , Zur Überlieferung des Lexikons des Ammonios , Hermes 100 (1972) 531–50. R. Tosi , Prospettive e...

Olympiodoros of Alexandria

Olympiodoros of Alexandria   Reference library

Barry Baldwin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
181 words

...of Alexandria , Neoplatonist philosopher; born ca. 500 , died after 564/5 . A pupil of Ammonios , Olympiodoros (᾽Ολυμπιόδωρος) taught philosophy in Alexandria and achieved fame as the “Great Philosopher.” His commentaries on Plato 's First Alcibiades, Gorgias , and Phaedo survive in the form of students' lecture notes, as do those on Aristotle 's Categories and Meteorologica . He is also thought to be the author of the commentaries on the astrological work of Paul of Alexandria ascribed to a certain Heliodoros ( L. Westerink , BZ 64 [...

Simplikios

Simplikios   Reference library

Barry Baldwin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
209 words

...(Σιμπλίκιος), philosopher who studied under Ammonios at Alexandria and Damaskios at Athens; born Cilicia 6th C. Some time after Justinian 's interference with the Academy of Athens in 529 , Simplikios was one of the seven famous philosophers who migrated to the court of the Persian king Chosroes I . When disillusion set in, they were allowed to return to Byz. territory under pledges of safe conduct and freedom of expression. Simplikios spent his remaining years in Athens, producing important commentaries on Aristotle , as well as one on the ...

Sokrates

Sokrates   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
207 words

...(Σωκράτης), ecclesiastical historian; born Constantinople ca. 380 , died after 439 . Sokrates was a lawyer ( scholastikos ) at Constantinople, where he had been educated by Ammonios and Helladios , two pagan grammarians living there in exile from Alexandria. His Church History covers the period 305–439 in seven books, each one containing the reign of an emperor. There is much emphasis on local events affecting Constantinople, also some obtruded sympathy for Novatianism . Secular events, including military history, are given due focus. Sokrates is...

Damaskios

Damaskios   Reference library

Barry Baldwin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
289 words

...(Δαμάσκιος), or Damaskios Diadochos, last scholarch of the Academy of Athens ; born Damascus ca. 460 ?, died after 538 . Damaskios both studied and taught rhetoric at Alexandria, also studying Plato with Ammonios . Moving to Athens, he studied several subjects, including mathematics, under Marinos. He eventually headed the Neoplatonist school. Sometime after Justinian's closing of the Academy in 529 , he emigrated with six fellow traveling philosophers to the Persian court. Soon disillusioned, they returned to Byz. territory in 532 under a special...

Eutokios

Eutokios   Reference library

David Pingree

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
280 words

...(Εὑτόκιος), commentator on mathematical works; born Ascalon ca. 480 . A contemporary of Ammonios and Anthemios of Tralles , Eutokios was active in Alexandria and perhaps Constantinople in the early 6th C. He is also known to have lectured on philosophy. Eutokios wrote commentaries on three works of Archimedes — On the Measurement of a Circle, On the Sphere and the Cylinder , and On Plane Equilibria . The first two of these commentaries were used by Isidore of Miletus , the last two were translated into Latin by William of Moerbeke at Viterbo in...

Sinai

Sinai   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
286 words

...to have fortified the Batos to protect it from Bedouin raids. Sinai became a center of monastic culture where writers such as John Klimax and Anastasios of Sinai were active; the exploits of Sinaite monks were recorded in several collections (e.g., by Neilos of Ankyra and Ammonios ). After the advent of Islam, the threat of Arab invasion compelled the bishop of Pharan to shift his see to the monastery at Mt. Sinai, but this area too fell to the Arabs by the end of the 7th C. Sinai was the goal of many pilgrimages—from Egeria and the Piacenza Pilgrim ...

Astronomy

Astronomy   Reference library

David Pingree and Anthony Cutler

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
925 words

...by Autolykos, Euclid , and Theodosios , which formed a sort of corpus throughout the Byz. period. Other signs of astronomical activity in this period include the observations made by Heliodoros and Ammonios between 475 and 510; perhaps the planetary tables based on Babylonian goal-year periods that al-Zarqālī in the late 11th C. associated with Ammonios's name; and some papyrus fragments of ephemerides (tables of true longitudes of the sun, moon, and planets) based on the Handy Tables . In this early period elementary astronomical knowledge was...

Origen

Origen   Reference library

Timothy E. Gregory

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
500 words

...ca. 185 , died Tyre? probably 254. A professor of the Alexandrian School from ca. 202 , he was excommunicated in 231/2 but found refuge in Caesarea Maritima, where he continued his teaching career. His traditional identification with the Neoplatonist Origen, a disciple of Ammonios , is not valid (K.O. Weber, Origenes der Neuplatoniker [Munich 1962 ]). Origen was a very prolific writer ( Jerome claims that Origen produced 2,000 works), but because of the later condemnation of his teachings most of his works survive only in fragments or in Latin...

Philoponos, John

Philoponos, John   Reference library

Barry Baldwin and Alice-Mary Talbot

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
457 words

...science, and theology; born ca. 490 , died after 567 , or after 574 (Sorabji). Philoponos (Φιλόπονος) is a sobriquet meaning “lover of work” and may also refer to the Alexandrian guilds of philoponoi , or church helpers. A Christian who was trained by the Neoplatonist Ammonios, John became a professional grammatikos at Alexandria. A born controversialist, in 529 he attacked the Neoplatonist notions of Proklos concerning the world's eternity in Against Proklos on the Eternity of the World . He also developed a Christian theory of matter,...

Plotinos

Plotinos   Reference library

Dominic J. O'Meara

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
420 words

...Neoplatonist philosopher; born 205 , died near Rome 270 . Plotinos studied philosophy in Alexandria with Ammonios Sakkas . After joining Gordian III 's Persian expedition ( 243 ), he set up a philosophical school in Rome, where he had close ties with the Roman senatorial class and with Gallienus . His project of an ideal city (Platonopolis), however, was not realized. His pupils Amelius and esp. Porphyry assured the influence of Plotinos's interpretation of Plato ( Neoplatonism ) on the philosophical schools of late antiquity. Porphyry...

Aristotle

Aristotle   Reference library

John Duffy and Alexander Kazhdan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
551 words

...have been transmitted in over 1,000 MSS dated between the 9th and 16th C., making him by far the most widely copied ancient Greek author; he is also the most commented on. In the early period, interest in Aristotle was particularly strong at the school of Alexandria, where Ammonios and Olympiodoros of Alexandria managed to present philosophy in a way that avoided trouble with the church. Elias of Alexandria and David the Philosopher , who succeeded Olympiodoros as head of the Alexandrian school, were also commentators on Aristotle, as was John...

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