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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...History . Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 234. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996. Zlotnick, Helena . Dinah’s Daughters: Gender and Judaism from the Hebrew Bible to Late Antiquity . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. Rachel Havrelock Greek World When Alexander the Great defeated Darius III in 330 (all dates b.c.e. ) and took over the Persian Empire, he ushered in a new phase of political leadership in the Greek world, a period termed the “Hellenistic.” His style of kingship involved a...

Deity

Deity   Reference library

Ilona Zsolnay, Peggy L. Day, Lynn E. Roller, Joshua L. Langseth, Deirdre Good, and Susan E. Myers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,139 words
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...cults are to express eusebeia (piety) toward the emperor/empress and to the gods. Consider Alexander the Great and proskynēsis . After Alexander defeated the Persian king Darius and became the king of Asia, he seems to have wanted to create personal power based on collaboration between trusted Macedonians/Greeks and Persians. In 331 b.c.e. Egyptian priests welcomed Alexander as son of Zeus in temples in Egypt at Siwa and Bahariya. In 328 b.c.e. , he proposed the introduction of proskynēsis as a demonstration of his status as king through an...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...). But whether the attempt to restrict citizenship also reflects an idealization of pure bloodlines or desire for “racial purity” in and of itself is a more difficult question. Modern debates often hinge on the emphasis that some Athenian writers give to the putative origins of the Athenians as an autochthonous group ( Isaac, 2004 , pp. 109–133). Marriage in the Hellenistic era. The alleged virility of Alexander the Great clearly contributed to the mythic image of the young man already forming at the time of his death; still today, Alexander casts a...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...)—very soon the secular leader disappeared. For the next 360 years the high-priestly family that oversaw the return to Jerusalem continued to lead the Jews. This family functioned in the office of high priests in the newly built Temple in Jerusalem and conducted all negotiations, religious as well as secular, with the ruling power—even when in 332 b.c.e. it changed hands and the Greeks under Alexander the Great assumed power. After about 360 years, in 151 b.c.e. , a high priest (Jonathan) from the Hasmonean family, which had just won a great military and...

Social Interaction

Social Interaction   Reference library

Philip Jones, James N. Hoke, Karri L. Whipple, Gary Gilbert, and Kathleen Gallagher Elkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
19,803 words

...administration of the late empire. Certainly the most famous Jew to rise to the office of prefect was Tiberius Julius Alexander, who served as prefect of both Judea and Egypt. By the time he assumed these posts, however, Alexander had renounced his association with the Jewish community. Participation in civic life, however, had its limitations. While Jews contributed frequently to their own communal institutions, such as the synagogue, they very rarely acted as benefactors of civic buildings or programs. One of the few example comes from the second century ...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...of third-century Emperor Alexander Severus suggests ( Codex of Justinian , 9.9.4.1). He was, however, as the jurist Papinian wrote, prohibited from killing his wife ( Digest , 48.5.39.8). These efforts to delineate and restrict the right to kill an adulterous woman speak to the juristic interest in limiting it. The alternative punishment, however, could be severe and lasting. A woman convicted of adultery could face a range of punishments, including loss of a portion of her dowry and the inability to remarry ( Excerpts from the Writings of Ulpian , 13.2; ...

Sexual Violence

Sexual Violence   Reference library

Hilary Lipka, Harold C. Washington, Susan Deacy, Fiona McHardy, John W. Marshall, Marianne Blickenstaff, Mika Ahuvia, and Joy A. Schroeder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,730 words

...and made great effort to smooth out its rough edges ( Antiquities 5.136). In his version, the concubine is the wife of the Levite. She dies of her own shame, expecting that her husband will hold her responsible for the sexual violence she endured. The translation into Greek of the Book of Daniel for the Hellenistic Jewish communities of the Eastern Mediterranean prompted a few additions to the original text, including the story of Susanna, a pious Jewess, threatened with rape who manages to escape the sexual advances of two esteemed men in her community (...

Imagery, Gendered

Imagery, Gendered   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Goldstein, Ken Stone, Julia M. O’Brien, Carole R. Fontaine, Greg Carey, Michal Beth Dinkler, and Susan Grove Eastman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,610 words

...if the author of J (Jawist) Source could have been female, and students regularly ask whether it is possible that the book of Ruth was written by a woman. These questions arise because these stories read as if the person writing understands the life of women. If one writes about women, we naturally wonder if the writer is an insider. Although some men can write as insiders as Wally Lamb does in She’s Come Undone or even Alexander McCall Smith in the No. 1 Ladies’ Detective Agency novels, it is difficult to think of men writing these books. In the case of...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

...the Late Bronze Age through Roman Palaestina , edited by William G. Dever and Seymour Gitin , pp. 393–410. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2003. Wegner, Judith Romney . “‘ Coming Before the Lord ’: The Exclusion of Women from the Public Domain of the Israelite Priestly Cult.” In The Book of Leviticus: Composition and Reception , edited by Rolf Rendtorff and Robert A. Kugler , pp. 451–465. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 93. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2003. Susan Ackerman Greek World As a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great...

Popular Religion and Magic

Popular Religion and Magic   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Ann Jeffers, Pauline Hanesworth, Nicola Denzey Lewis, Jared C. Calaway, Mika Ahuvia, and Justin Marc Lasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,199 words

...Latin literary sources. The Roman author Lucian ( 125–180 c.e. ), for example, lampoons miracle-workers who claimed to heal people through what amounted to quackery, such as tying the tooth of a weasel picked up from the ground with the left hand to one’s feet to cure rheumatism ( Lover of Lies 7–8, 12, 16). In Lucian’s Life of Alexander of Abonoteichus , the magician Alexander sets up shop in Bithynia to take advantage of gullible but wealthy women. Although these examples of religious behavior survive as satire, they reveal the widespread and essentially...

Education

Education   Reference library

Heather D. D. Parker, Erin E. Fleming, Timothy J. Sandoval, Daniele Pevarello, Michele Kennerly, Pheme Perkins, Sarit Kattan Gribetz, and Lillian I. Larsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
28,684 words

...orator’s earliest days, unlike others that focus solely on putting the finishing touches on an already highly trained orator or on the figment of the imagination that is the perfect orator (though it does not take him long to begin speaking to this ideal—1 pref. 9; 1.10.4). The first book opens with the birth of a son whose father has the highest of hopes for his child and so seeks out the best teachers at every stage of his son’s education. Quintilian goes on to lay out, in great detail, the nature of grammatical study. In those early books, Quintilian...

Gender Transgression

Gender Transgression   Reference library

Deryn Guest, Walter D. Penrose Jr., Eric Thurman, Sean D. Burke, Sarra Lev, and Kristi Upson-Saia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,362 words

...Adler, Rachel . “The Virgin in the Brothel and Other Anomalies: Character and Context in the Legend of Beruriah.” Tikkun 3, no. 6 (1988): 28–32; 102–105. Alexander, Elizabeth Shanks . Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Boyarin, Daniel . Carnal Israel: Reading Sex in Talmudic Culture . The New Historicism 25. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993. Boyarin, Daniel . “Why Is Rabbi Yoḥanan a Woman? Or a Queer Marriage Gone Bad: ‘Platonic Love’ in the Talmud.” In ...

sociology

sociology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,210 words

...a queen of the social sciences, bringing together and extending the knowledge and insights of all the other (conceptually more restricted) adjacent disciplines. This claim is perhaps less true now than during the period when sociology was expanding rapidly, but despite inevitable specialization among its practitioners there is still a strong totalizing tendency in the discipline, as a perusal of the work of Anthony Giddens or Jeffrey Alexander will establish. Indeed, Giddens himself argues that sociology emerged as an attempt to make sense of the profound...

Migrant Camps, Depression Era

Migrant Camps, Depression Era   Reference library

Toni Alexander

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...democracy and citizenship through participation in camp governance. After the conclusion of World War II, the federal government ended the camp program in 1946 and disposed of the properties. Although the success or failure of these facilities continues to be debated by scholars, popular media has embraced them as iconic symbols of the Great Depression. Images of the federal camps, as well of those of migrant shantytowns and the impoverished roadside “Migrant Mother” captured by the FSA photographer Dorothea Lange, continue to play a significant role in...

Democratic-Republican Clubs

Democratic-Republican Clubs   Reference library

Matthew Schoenbachler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...into the French Jacobin Society. This same republican ebullience also led the societies to protest energetically numerous policies of the nascent Federalist Party: the Proclamation of Neutrality, the appointment of John Jay as emissary to Great Britain, and, most significantly, Alexander Hamilton’s financial program. In vastly strengthening the power and influence of the central government, Hamilton’s program awakened traditional fears of a distant, unaccountable, and corrupt ruling class. Federalists, meanwhile, were horrified by the clubs and the...

Smith, Joseph

Smith, Joseph   Reference library

Terryl Givens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Myriad restorationists of the era similarly looked to return Christianity to its purer roots, most notably Barton Stone and Thomas and Alexander Campbell . Smith’s version differed, among other ways, in its emphasis on priesthood authority, which he asserted he had received at the hands of angelic messengers. Smith’s doctrine was a mix of New Testament Christianity, Old Testament religion, and ideas that the orthodox tradition discarded in the early Christian centuries. Spiritual gifts and apostolic leadership coexisted with the centrality of temple...

Internal Migration

Internal Migration   Reference library

Martha K. Robinson, Malcolm J. Rohrbough, James N. Gregory, and Steven A. Reich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the railroad system into the West coincided with the final generation of warfare on the Plains. For Indian peoples, the railroad was a thrust into their heartland. The last acts of resistance by Indians (Little Bighorn, 1876 ) and massacre by soldiers ( Wounded Knee , 1890 ) framed the final acts of Indian opposition. The emerging range-cattle industry reflected the influence of the railroad. The Great American Desert turned out to be the Great American Grassland. The rise of the industry represented the convergence of range cattle and the railroads. It...

Unemployment, Social Impact of

Unemployment, Social Impact of   Reference library

Max Fraser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The Progressive Era brought the first steps toward the modern welfare system, but it was not until 1932 that Wisconsin became the first state to pass legislation providing unemployment insurance—three years after the beginning of the most severe employment crisis in American history. In the first three months of the Great Depression, the ranks of the unemployed jumped from 429,000 to more than 4 million; by 1933 , more than one-quarter of the American workforce was out of work, and in cities like Toledo , Ohio , the rate approached 80 percent. The...

Aliens during Wartime

Aliens during Wartime   Reference library

Stephen Mak

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...1917 , Wilson appointed Alexander Mitchell Palmer to the position of Alien Property Custodian to hold in trust enemy assets until the end of the war. Most individual investments in real property and securities were returned, but—to the benefit of the American chemical industry—corporate investments in industries like chemicals and textiles, including valuable patents, were not. After World War I, Americans pursued an anti-Communist campaign in which the government used immigration law to combat radicalism. In order to avoid the formal legal procedures that...

Nūr Jahān

Nūr Jahān   Reference library

Ellison Banks Findly

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
772 words

...of the Great Mogul, 1615–1619, As Narrated in His Journal and Correspondence . 2 vols. London: Hakluyt Society, 1899. Memoirs of the first official English ambassador to the Mughal court, including his encounters with both Jahangir and Nūr Jahān. Rogers, Alexander , trans., and Henry Beveridge , ed. The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri, or Memoirs of Jahangir . 2 vols. 1909–1914. 2nd ed., Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1968. Personal memoirs of Jahāngīr, with details of his life with Nūr Jahān. Ellison Banks...

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