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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...go to the community in which the damage has been done. In fact, this is the central argument of restorative justice, which seeks to motivate offenders to repair the harm they have done to the community (Alexander, 2006 ). There is also the issue of the collateral damage done to the African American community by the get-tough-on-crime campaigns (Mauer, 2003 , 2006 ). Convictions and imprisonment for a large number of African Americans carry considerable damage, such as loss of voting rights and employment discrimination. Pager ( 2003 ) sought to test the...

Cultural Competence

Cultural Competence   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in the 1980s and developed into a generally accepted framework for multicultural practice by the late 1990s. “We can trace a historical progression of related multicultural themes such as ethnic sensitivity, cultural awareness, cultural diversity, and now cultural competence. These concepts are not mutually exclusive. Rather, cultural competence serves as a rubric that embraces these areas of concern” (Lum, 2007 ). In the 1950s and 1960s the civil rights movement, along with the War on Poverty and the Great Society policy initiatives, transformed the...

Social Work Practice

Social Work Practice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...mean that it is the correct answer. Social work practice will face a number of challenges in the future. The change in political economy, coupled with other changes in culture and social organization, will create the need for new practice methods and make others less viable. Social workers must resist the temptation to hold on to the past when the future is at our door. References Alexander, L. B. (1972). Social work's Freudian deluge: Myth or reality? Social Service Review , 46, 517–538. Austin, D. M. (1983). The Flexner Myth and the History of Social...

Prevention

Prevention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Social Welfare and Social Services
Length:
5,661 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of assessing the person(s)-in-environment(s), so as to get the greatest hold on the challenge facing the helping professional. There are many specific differences in theories and practice methods, but these are not nearly as important as the similarities in objectives and the underlying problem-solving process. The basic question is how to get prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation to work together for the good of their clients (Alexander, Robbins, & Sexton, 2000 ). References Albee, G. W. (1983). Psychopathology, prevention, and the just society . ...

Research

Research   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...populations were made; and appeals to the literature with respect to consistent findings were included (Nurius & Tripodi, 1985 ). By and large, it was clear that there were no standards that were universally employed. The issue of generalizability is continually evident in a collection of 20 studies by social work researchers (Alexander & Solomon, 2006 ). The authors were asked to comment on the strengths and limitations of those studies as well as specify the underlying principles for making key decisions influencing the research process (Tripodi, 2006 )....

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...and fitness offer great promise for the improvement and expansion of rehabilitation services. Disablement theory; treatment; comprehensive rehabilitation; levels of rehabilitation; best practices; postrehabilitation planning A confluence of factors within the last century, such as improved medicine, higher standards of living, and better hygienic practices, has given rise to reduced infant mortality rates and longer life spans. The more recent trend of lower birth rates in the United States and other modern industrialized countries, coupled with more...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...critical considerations in the discussion of African immigration to America are two pull factors—educational and professional opportunities in America from the 1960s to the turn of the century. The United States, which is considered a major center for higher education, provided scholarships and other cultural and educational opportunities that served as great incentives for Africans from the newly independent countries during the 1960s and the 1970s. Oil revenues, during the boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, further increased the number of students from...

Contexts/Settings

Contexts/Settings   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the religious services adapted to the new environment by developing high-quality professionalized counseling services that are the core of modern-day social work. It seemed that the federal government was taking control over the welfare of the American residents. This impression grew stronger in the 1960s with the War on Poverty and the Great Society programs under the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. However, as evidenced by recent studies, the majority of American religious congregations remained active in caring for the needs of people in the...

Children

Children   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...a broad understanding of the environment that impinges on the child, including family dynamics and interactions; culture, social context and social systems; ethnic and racial characteristics; and environmental pressures, demands, and opportunities. Because the environment covers a great deal of ground, the social worker selects the most significant factors that are impinging on the child and family at a particular time, following the concepts of the family as a system of forces in interaction with other systems in its environment. The major practice principles...

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