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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...king. The grateful Gordius thanked the people and honored Zeus in the temple square by dedicating his vehicle to the god and tying its pole to its yoke by means of a complex knot. An oracle claimed that the one who could untie that knot would rule in Asia . When Alexander came to Phrygia, he cut the knot with his sword and proclaimed himself the conqueror named by the oracle. When in 331 he made a pilgrimage to a great temple of the god Amon-Ra in Egypt — a god the Greeks thought of as a version of Zeus—he decided that, like the old Egyptian...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... the Great . Alexander lived from 356 to 323 b.c.e. and ruled from 336. In the Middle East he generally is known as Alexander the Macedonian. He conquered the Persian Achaemenid Empire and introduced Hellenism throughout the region, but his influence in the East derives not from his conquests but from his relation to Aristotle and his superhuman qualities. After Alexander 's death many stories—some fabulous—circulated about him. Known collectively as the Alexander romance, they were translated into many languages in many versions. Before the coming of...

al-Khidr, the Green One, Tests the Patience of Moses

al-Khidr, the Green One, Tests the Patience of Moses (Arabic areas)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...the Green One, Tests the Patience of Moses (Arabic areas) al-Khidr, the Green One (Swahili: Hishiri; Fulfulde: Halilu), a mythic hero, was the spokesman for the divine. He was associated with the sea, commanding the obedience of the four quarters; he was the deputy of God on the sea and his representative on the earth. He revealed esoteric doctrines to men of exceptional sanctity. al-Khidr became immortal when he drank from the Well of Life. He encouraged Alexander, the “two-horned one,” so called because, al-Khidr told him, he was the lord of the two...

Amadán

Amadán   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., the Great Fool, is the Perceval -like hero of several Irish folk narratives and a sometime leader of the fairy host in narrative and poetry. Amadán na bruidhne, the fool of the fairy mounds or palaces, is greatly feared because he may administer the fairy stroke , causing paralysis, crippling, or death; he is most active in June. There does not appear to be a connection between the folk figure and the colloquial use of Amadán in spoken Irish and English. See EACHTRA AN AMADÁIN MHÓIR . A Scottish ballad version is ‘Laoidh an Amadain Mhóir’, in Alexander...

Hamilton, Alexander

Hamilton, Alexander (1755–1804)   Reference library

Joanne B. Freeman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Alexander ( 1755–1804 ), statesman, politician, economist, and lawyer . Alexander Hamilton is best known for his economic policies as the nation's first secretary of the treasury, but military and diplomatic concerns were rarely far from his mind. He rose to national prominence in the Continental army. His experiences in the army profoundly shaped his public career. And he grounded the tenets of his policies—national credit, national security, and national honor—on the support of a strong military and well-reasoned relations with secure foreign...

Jay, John

Jay, John (1745–1829)   Reference library

Jerald A. Combs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the treaty and its inability to reach consensus under the Articles of Confederation led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 . Although not a member of the Constitutional Convention, Jay supported its efforts by helping Alexander Hamilton and James Madison write the Federalist Papers defending the new constitution. President George Washington rewarded Jay's efforts by appointing him the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1794 , Washington sent Jay to London to protect American commerce from the hostilities that developed in the...

XYZ Affair

XYZ Affair   Reference library

Jerald A. Combs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Affair Jay's Treaty of 1794 with Great Britain, concluded during the war between Britain and revolutionary France, failed to secure the neutral rights of American ships against British searches and seizures. The French were enraged because, after the superior British navy had swept French merchant ships from the sea, France depended on neutral American ships to carry the trade of the French empire. In retaliation, the French began to seize American ships and cargoes. They also refused to receive the new American minister, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney ....

Rishabha

Rishabha (South and Central Asia)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...from ordinary existence. To Sravana Belgola, the granite eminence sacred to the Jains in Mysore, came the aged Chandragupta Maurya, having taken a similar vow of renunciation and travelled southwards with his guru , Bhadrabahu. This monarch had come to power in 322 bc , five years after the raid of Alexander the Great into the north-western plains of India, and under his energetic rule the states of the Ganges valley were amalgamated into a powerful empire. Like the Buddha, Chandragupta Maurya belonged to the pre-Aryan nobility, whose more vigorous sons...

Society for Folk Life Studies

Society for Folk Life Studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Founded September 1961 , ‘The Society aims to further the study of traditional ways of life in Great Britain and Ireland and to provide a common meeting point for the many institutions engaged with the various aspects of the subject’. The movement towards the founding of folk museums and folk life programmes in Britain was already taking shape in the 1930s, heavily influenced by Scandinavian models, and the need for a society and a journal was apparent, but the intervention of the Second World War postponed further development. The relatively short-lived...

Judaism and its Abrahamic relatives

Judaism and its Abrahamic relatives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...religious ways of the indigenous Canaanites . Judah became an exclusively Jewish theocratic state. The Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty in the Middle East included not only Babylonia and Palestine but also Egypt and much of Anatolia . The empire lasted until 333–331 b.c.e. , when Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great of Macedonia. With Alexander's early death in 323 , the empire was divided up by his generals. The Ptolemies gained control in Egypt, the Seleucids and Parthians in Mesopotamia , Palestine, and Persia ( Iran ). Once...

Daniel

Daniel (West Asia)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...recurred after the death of Alexander the Great, whose conquest of the Persian Empire left rich pickings for his generals, and ‘they brought untold miseries upon the world’. In particular the Seleucid ruler Antiochus Epiphanes ( 175–163 bc ) drove them into open revolt. The Book of Daniel , the earliest example of apocalyptic literature, was propaganda written to comfort the Hebrews resisting the Hellenizing policy of the Seleucids. It concerns the discomfiture of Nebuchadnezzar, the symbol of all oppression, and the vindication of Daniel as the true adherent...

MARTIN, William Alexander Parsons

MARTIN, William Alexander Parsons (1827–1916)   Reference library

Lydia GERBER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...prepare Manchu and Chinese students for a career in the diplomatic service. During the 100-Day Reforms in the summer of 1898 Sun Jianai ( 1827–1909 ), president of the recently founded Imperial University (later Beijing University), asked Martin to serve as head of faculty. William Alexander Parsons Martin, an American Presbyterian missionary at the turn of the twentieth century, lived in China for sixty-six years. When Boxer militias, obviously supported by the Chinese government, laid siege to the legation quarters in Beijing in June 1900 , Martin...

Quasi-War with France

Quasi-War with France   Reference library

Jerald A. Combs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Adams's peace, the president's peacemaking divided his party, and the Republican Thomas Jefferson defeated him for the presidency in 1800 . [ See also Adams, John ; Early Republic, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the ; Jay's Treaty ; Neutrality ; and XYZ Affair .] Bibliography DeConde, Alexander . The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797–1801 . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1966. Lang, Daniel George . Foreign Policy in the Early Republic: The Law of Nations and the Balance of Power ....

Madison, James

Madison, James (1751–1836)   Reference library

J. C. A. Stagg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and ultimately became, with modifications, the blueprint for the federal constitution. Playing an equally prominent role in the ratification process, Madison collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on the Federalist Papers , writing twenty-nine of the eighty-five essays; led the Federalist forces in the Virginia ratifying convention; and in 1789 headed the campaign to add the first amendments to the Constitution in the form of the Bill of Rights. Madison served four terms in the U.S. House of Representatives ( 1789–1797 ). At first, he...

Military Service Academies

Military Service Academies   Reference library

Todd Forney and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Party members like George Washington and Alexander Hamilton advocated a regular officer corps. Ironically, it was the Federalists’ archrival, Thomas Jefferson , who authorized the establishment of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1802 . West Point's founders, understanding the fears about a professional officer corps, emphasized the school's engineering reputation rather than its military functions. The army's combat record in the War of 1812 convinced national leaders of the need for better-trained officers. Sylvanus Thayer's...

Pear Garden

Pear Garden   Reference library

Nirmal DASS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...to the present day . Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Scott, A. C. (1978). The classical theatre of China . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Children of the Pear Garden In his 1894 essay “A View From the Great Wall” William Alexander Parsons Martin discusses the “Children of the Pear-garden”: It is a mistake to reckon the whole population of China as adherents of the Buddhist faith. It has absorbed Taoism, but the educated classes, almost without exception, adhere to Confucius; and even the uneducated profess allegiance to the Great...

Adams, John

Adams, John (1735–1826)   Reference library

Leonard L. Richards

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...feud with Alexander Hamilton , divided the Federalist Party, leading to Jefferson's presidential victory in 1800 . Still, his policies kept the United States out of the proliferating Napoleonic wars, leading him to characterize his presidential diplomacy as the “most splendid diamond in my crown.” Retiring to his farm in Braintree, Adams wrote his memoirs and essays on his wartime diplomacy and conducted a voluminous correspondence with Thomas Jefferson and others on political theory and the American Revolution. Like Jefferson , he died on the fiftieth...

Van Buren, Martin

Van Buren, Martin (1782–1862)   Reference library

Jean Harvey Baker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...during removal. Disease and starvation also plagued the Seminole tribe, who resisted removal with force. By the time Van Buren entered office, the Seminoles and U.S. armed forces had already been engaged in a war of attrition for over two years. As casualties and costs mounted during the ensuing two years, Van Buren finally sent the Army's commanding general, Alexander Macomb , to negotiate with the Seminoles in early 1839 . Although they reached an agreement, fighting resumed over the summer and continued until after Van Buren left office....

Celtic mythology

Celtic mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...Early in the fourth century b.c.e. Celtic tribes (Celtae or Galli) overran the city of Rome. In 279 b.c.e. Celts ( Keltoi ) attacked Delphi , and soon after that Celts (Galatae) penetrated Asia Minor, where they founded Galatia in the area around ancient Gordion, the city of King Midas , where Alexander the Great was said to have destroyed the famous Gordian knot. The Celtic migrations to Britain took place from the fifth century b.c.e. to the arrival of the Belgae in the first century b.c.e. Celts were in Ireland at least as early as the third...

Sanders, Harland

Sanders, Harland (1890–1980)   Reference library

Corinna Hawkes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...before long, Harman had opened the first franchise. Seeing great potential in Sanders as a marketing image, Harman named the franchise Colonel Sanders’ Kentucky Fried Chicken, and painted the Colonel's face on the signboard above his Utah store. Helped by frequent radio advertising, the franchise was a great success. But the following year, the Colonel faced downfall: Highway 25 was rerouted away from his Corbin café, removing all his potential customers. Undeterred, the Colonel took to the road himself, relentlessly selling his recipe to roadside eateries....

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