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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...national security with the Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 and 1918 , respectively. During the New Era of the 1920 s, the administrative state was further expanded with the enactment of Prohibition, as well as the establishment of new regulatory agencies. These agencies, such as the Civil Aeronautics Board for air travel and the Federal Communications Commission for radio, helped foster the grow of these industries. The collapse of the economy into the Great Depression in 1929 posed a severe test for this still relatively light form of government...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...Federal In Federalist No. 30 ( 1787 ), Alexander Hamilton asserted, “Money is, with propriety, considered as the vital principle of the body politic; as that which sustains its life and motion and enables it to perform its most essential functions.” Over the next two centuries and beyond, the budget was a battleground for political actors holding different views about the federal government’s scope, who should bear its costs, and whether to defray these costs to the future through operation of a deficit. Until the 1920 s budgeting was predominantly a...

Jay, John

Jay, John (1789–95)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
506 words

...president of the Continental Congress. During the 1780s he was involved in making and conducting foreign policy for the United States. Although Jay did not attend the Constitutional Convention of 1787 , he worked effectively for ratification of the federal Constitution. Toward this end, he wrote five of The Federalist Papers (Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 64), which were originally printed in New York newspapers to support the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Other authors were James Madison and Alexander Hamilton , who were leaders in the movement to...

Shultz, George Pratt

Shultz, George Pratt (13 Dec. 1920)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
367 words

...Stanford University and president of the Bechtel Group, Inc. In 1982 he was appointed Secretary of State by President Reagan , following the resignation of Alexander Haig . He served with great distinction and was one of the most influential and successful secretaries of state in American history. He worked quietly to tone down the virulently anti-Soviet rhetoric in which Reagan had engaged in the early 1980s and to resume talks with the Soviets after their breakdown in 1983 . Following the accession to power in the Soviet Union of Mikhail Gorbachev in...

Federalist, The

Federalist, The   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
901 words

...The The Federalist , a collection of 85 papers, or essays, was written to explain and support ratification of the Constitution of 1787 . Seventy-seven essays were first printed in New York City newspapers between October 27, 1787 , and April 2, 1788 . The complete set of 85 essays was published in May 1788 by McLean and Company of New York City. Alexander Hamilton , the major author of The Federalist , wrote 51 of the 85 papers (Nos. 1, 6–9,11–13, 15–17, 21–36, 59–61, and 65–85). James Madison wrote 29 essays (Nos. 10, 14, 18–20, 37–58, and...

constitutionalism

constitutionalism   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
997 words

...to the supreme law—the Constitution. As Alexander Hamilton explained in The Federalist No. 78: “No legislative act contrary to the Constitution, therefore, can be valid.” On the contrary, a legislative or executive action that violates the Constitution can be declared unconstitutional, or unlawful, by the Supreme Court. In the United States, the ultimate purpose of constitutionalism is stated in the Declaration of Independence: to secure the “unalienable rights” of all people through a government established by “consent of the governed.” According to the...

Waldheim, Kurt

Waldheim, Kurt (21 Dec. 1918)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
427 words

...the diplomatic service, but the Nazi takeover of Austria in 1938 prevented him realizing this ambition. The war came and he was called up, serving in the German army as a lieutenant. After recovering from wounds sustained on the eastern front he was sent to occupied Greece and later Yugoslavia. He was an intelligence officer on the staff of General Alexander Löhr who, on Hitler 's birthday in 1945 , presented his fellow Austrian Waldheim with a War Merit Cross, First Class, with Swords. Löhr was executed after the war as a war criminal. In his...

Madison, James

Madison, James   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,667 words

...the national government. He also drafted legislation that organized the Departments of Foreign Affairs, War, and the Treasury. Although he held no official title, Madison served as floor leader of the House for President George Washington's administration during the 1st Congress. However, he soon came to oppose the financial program of the first Treasury secretary, Alexander Hamilton , particularly the protective tariff (a tax on imported goods), as well as Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality, which kept the United States out of the war between Great...

Adams, John

Adams, John   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,108 words

...votes to 68. Under the rules then in effect, Jefferson, as the runner-up, became Vice President, although he was the leader of the opposition party, the Democratic-Republicans. During his Presidency, Adams faced intrigues within his own party as Alexander Hamilton moved to influence his cabinet and his policies. The Jay Treaty, which he had helped negotiate with Great Britain in 1795 , allowed British ships to seize American cargoes bound for France. The French, in retaliation, decreed that French warships would follow the same policy against...

political parties in Congress

political parties in Congress   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
968 words

...in the 1790s. The Federalist party consolidated those who supported the policies of the Washington administration, particularly the financial program of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. In 1792 James Madison and Thomas Jefferson launched an opposition Democratic-Republican party, which gained the majority in the House of Representatives that year. Opposing a strong, activist central government, Democratic-Republicans rallied against Hamilton's programs. Their strength in Congress came largely from Southern and Western districts, while the...

Monroe, James

Monroe, James   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,104 words

...Madison for a seat in the House of Representatives in 1788 , but two years later was selected by the Virginia legislature for a seat in the U.S. Senate, where he opposed the Federalist economic programs of Alexander Hamilton . President George Washington appointed Monroe to be U.S. minister to France. He refused to defend the Jay Treaty with Great Britain to the French government, believing the terms to favor British interests against the French, and Washington recalled him. He published a defense of his conduct and an attack on the Federalist foreign...

nominations, confirmation of

nominations, confirmation of   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
975 words

...to the Constitution (Article 2, Section 2), the Senate alone has the authority to advise and consent on nominations made by the President. These nominations include those of members of the cabinet, executive agency heads, diplomats, judges, federal attorneys, and military officers. This power is critically important to the federal system of checks and balances. Along with the development of “senatorial courtesy”—by which senators usually will not vote to confirm nominees opposed by their home-state senators—the confirmation power has given the Senate great...

Monroe Doctrine

Monroe Doctrine   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,012 words

...2, 1823 , President James Monroe stated, “The American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power.” Monroe was responding to Russian claims to the Oregon Territory and to an attempt by the Russian-American Trading Company to exclude U.S. ships from the waters near its trading post in Spanish California. In October 1823 Russian czar Alexander I sent a letter to his allies in the Holy Alliance—France, Spain, and Austria—in which...

Nicholas II

Nicholas II (18 May 1868)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
825 words

...1918 ) Nicholas succeeded to the throne at the age of 26, following the death of his father Alexander III , who restored stability to the dynasty after the assassination of his reforming father by firmly suppressing dissent. Nicholas was inexperienced, immature, and without interest in military or political affairs. Influenced by his tutor and his father's mentor the arch-conservative Pobedonostsev he had an unshakeable commitment to the principles of autocracy and a dislike of reform. Soon after his accession he married the German Princess and...

Jefferson, Thomas

Jefferson, Thomas   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,687 words

...1812 to form the nucleus of the second Library of Congress (the British having burned the first). Jefferson was responsible for the chartering of the University of Virginia in 1819 . He designed the campus and its buildings and served as the first rector of the university. He also designed the state capitol building. Jefferson died on July 4, 1826 , just a few hours before his great rival and friend John Adams , on the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. See also Adams, John ; Burr, Aaron ; Electoral college ; Madison,...

Progressive Movement, US

Progressive Movement, US   Reference library

Kenneth Finegold

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...as elimination of corruption, displaced the older reform ideal of “good government,” which often meant government from which non-Anglo-Saxon or working-class politicians, such as Boston ’s James Michael Curley and New York ’s George Washington Plunkitt, had been removed. The most enduring Progressive mayors included Baker and Tom Johnson in Cleveland , Hazen Pingree in Detroit , and Brand Whitlock in Toledo . John Purroy Mitchel ( New York ) and George Alexander ( Los Angeles ) were more briefly successful. At the state level, Progressives organized...

Washington, George

Washington, George   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,019 words

...aimed to put the finances of the nation on a sound footing, to normalize relations with the British, and to develop the frontier. The methods that he and his Treasury secretary, Alexander Hamilton, devised to achieve these goals created divisions within his administration. Hamilton wanted a “strong and energetic executive” who would dominate Congress and take control of policy-making. He wanted to levy taxes on whiskey and other goods to raise revenues and pay government debts. He also wanted an alliance (or at least a treaty of friendship) with the British in...

Glass-Steagall Act

Glass-Steagall Act   Reference library

Sylvia Maxfield

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,240 words

...of its responsibility for the Great Depression. The bill circumscribed the activities of commercial banks. The term “commercial bank” is critical to understanding Glass-Steagall, because the legislation segregates commercial banking from investment banking. Commercial banks were defined by membership in the national Federal Reserve System, created in 1913 to fulfill the functions of a central bank, including serving as a lender of last resort to banks. At the time, banks could seek charters from state governments or the national government. Banks with...

Impeachment

Impeachment   Reference library

James P. Pfiffner

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,113 words

...again in the seventeenth century to counter the absolutist pretentions of the Stuarts. The framers of the US Constitution were steeped in British history, and adopted impeachment as a check on the executive branch, as had most of the newly created states after the Revolution. Alexander Hamilton, in The Federalist no. 65 , called the British process of indictment by the House of Commons and conviction (or acquittal) by the House of Lords the “model” for US constitutional procedures. The original Virginia Plan gave control of impeachments to the national...

Checks and Balances

Checks and Balances   Reference library

Charles O. Jones

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,297 words

...; Presidency: Governing ; and Separation of Powers . ] Bibliography Bryce, James. The American Commonwealth . (Indianapolis, Ind., 1995). Originally published in 1893. Casper, Gerhard. Separating Power: Essays on the Founding Period . (Cambridge, Mass., 1997). Hall, Kermit L., ed. The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions . (New York, 1999). Hamilton, Alexander, John Jay, and James Madison. The Federalist . (New York, 1937). Jones, Charles O. The Presidency in a Separated System . 2d ed. (Washington, D.C., 2005). Mayhew, David R. ...

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