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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Aristotle

Aristotle (384—322 bce)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...teacher. Aristotle compiled his observations of the heavens around 340 bce and set them down in Meteorologica , a four-volume text that was considered the authority on weather theory for more than 2,000 years and ultimately led to the science of modern meteorology. Born in 384, Aristotle developed an early interest in mathematics and biology; at age 17 he became a member of Plato's Academy, where he studied for 20 years. He later served as tutor to the 13-year-old prince who would become Alexander the Great. In 335, Aristotle began his own school in Athens....

Lakes

Lakes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,313 words
Illustration(s):
2

... et al., 1999 ). The abrupt change in the level of the Caspian (2.5 meters between 1978 and 1995 ) has also been attributed to ENSO phenomena ( Arpe et al., 2000 ). Similarly, the 3.7-meter rise in the level of the Great Salt Lake between 1982 and 1986 was at least partly related to the record rainfall and snowfall in its catchment during the 1982–1983 El Niño ( Arnow and Stephens , 1990 ). The enormous changes that occur in the volume of Lake Eyre (South Australia) result from ENSO-related changes in inflow, with the greatest flooding...

Lakes

Lakes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,061 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of change is the Valencia Basin in Venezuela (Böckh, 1973). It was the declining level of the waters in this lake that so struck the great German geographer Alexander von Humboldt in 1800 . He recorded its level as being about 422 meters above sea level, whereas previous observations on its level, made by Antonio Manzano in 1727 , had established it as being at 426 meters. The 1968 level was about 405 meters, representing a fall of no less that 21 meters in about 240 years. Humboldt believed that the cause of the declining level was the deforestation...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cleared landscapes. Rudimentary data on the distribution of plant and animal species in habitats destroyed by clearing also constrain definitive statements concerning the extinction of species or contraction of their geographic ranges. Australia. Figure 1. Boundaries of the Australian States and Territories and Their Capitals.The arid zone that normally receives less than 500 millimeters of rainfall per annum is the area within the dashed line. Shading indicates the areas of land clearance. (Adapted from Alexander, 1996.) Many habitat fragments in cleared...

Painting, Sculpture, and Weather

Painting, Sculpture, and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...weather's manifestations as an art form shaped but not controlled by the sculptor's hand. The well-known mobiles of the U.S. sculptor Alexander Calder ( 1898–1976 ) respond to every movement of the air, forming and reforming like clouds in a continuous process of creation and renewal. [ See also Cultural Works Addressing Climate and Weather ; and History, Climate, and Weather .] Bibliography Bearden, R. , and H. Henderson . A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the Present . New York: Pantheon, 1993. Cohn, S. Arthur Dove: Nature as...

Teleconnections

Teleconnections   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Union, 2003. Liu, Z. , and M. Alexander, M. “ Atmospheric Bridge, Oceanic Tunnel, and Global Climatic Teleconnections .” Reviews of Geophysics 45 (2007): RG2005, doi:10.1029/2005RG000172. Mo, K. C. , and R. E. Livezey . “ Tropical-Extratropical Geopotential Height Teleconnections during the Northern Hemisphere Winter .” Monthly Weather Review 114 (1986): 2488–2515. David D. Houghton ; revised and updated by Steven Quiring * Correlations may be either positive or negative for the variables listed. In all cases, the variables are for monthly or...

Climatic Zones

Climatic Zones   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,955 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the types of wind zones and calm zones. Although the term belt is usually used rather than zone, these circulation characteristics essentially constitute zones. The horse latitude calms, the trade winds, and the westerly winds are zonal concepts based on wind patterns. Zonal types of upper level flows were also labeled. The simple zonal concept of circulation, although attractive, had great limitations. Twentieth-century meteorologists and climatologists have striven for more realism in model construction, and the broad zones identified by the...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...that masks the enormous interannual rainfall variability that characterizes all Australian climates. Aridity is a consequence of the absence of any great mountain ranges and the centering of the subtropical high-pressure belt over the continent. The highs also cause contrasting seasonal patterns in northern and southern Australia. In the austral summer months, southern Australian has a hot and dry climate that is conducive to episodic intense wildfires. Conversely, in northern Australia the climate is hot and wet due to the dominance of the summer monsoon,...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...The achievements of the great nineteenth-century engineers such as Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Ferdinand de Lesseps still seem like the work of titans; so, too, do the achievements of the industrial magnates of the time, such as Andrew Carnegie and Cecil Rhodes . The list can be extended into the twentieth century, with such men as Thomas Alva Edison and Henry Ford , though perhaps the aura of heroism is brightest in the earliest generations, the ones closer to the transformation of a world of wood and muscle into a world of steel and engines. The...

Literature and Weather

Literature and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...not the weather “sympathizes” with the events of the Civil War: since this war, and the wide and deep national agitation, strange analogies, different combinations, a different sunlight, or absence of it; different products even out of the ground. After every great battle, a great storm. Even civic events the same … Indeed, the heavens, the elements, all the meteorological influences, have run riot for weeks past. The recourse to weather imagery to figure the events of a war is generally linked to an effort to account for the violence, the bloodshed, and the...

Hydrological Cycle

Hydrological Cycle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,376 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the critical importance of the water cycle, in particular precipitation, in human affairs. Flood damage estimates are in the billions of U.S. dollars annually, with thousands of lives lost, whereas drought costs are of similar magnitude and often lead to devastating wildfires and heat waves. The loss of life and property from extreme hydrological events has therefore caused society to focus on the causes and predictability of these events. Tropical cyclones typically have the highest property damage loss of any extreme event and are therefore of great...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...a site—the planet Earth—already fully stocked, not only with tiny plants but other trees. The tiny plants are the world's tribal societies, much atrophied over the course of the last several centuries; the other trees are the civilizations that by the European Middle Ages had arisen on every continent and some of which have vanished, while others are gnarled survivors. This other vegetation still struggles to survive under the great shade cast by the tree that has become the world's dominant culture, and we shall return to it. Now, however, consider the giant....

Ethics for Climate Change Communicators

Ethics for Climate Change Communicators   Reference library

Michael Lamb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the case of climate change. 20 Kant’s second formulation of the categorical imperative, however, provides support for a more patient-centered or victim-centered approach ( Alexander & Moore, 2015 ). The idea that animates his so-called Formula of Humanity is the principle of respect: “So act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means” ( 1996a , 4:429; see also Driver, 2007 , p. 96). On this account, communicators ought to act in ways that respect the...

Mobile Earth

Mobile Earth   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...ideas about continental drift since before the nineteenth century, the first serious proponent of this hypothesis was Alfred Wegener , in 1912 ( Wegener , 1966 ). He used a wide variety of data to suggest mobility of the continents. Although many of his ideas have been proven correct, he was wrong in one major respect, the rate of motion: his speeds were more than a factor of ten larger than those now known to exist. Early supporters of his ideas were Alexander du Toit ( 1937 ) and Arthur Holmes ( 1944 ). The field advanced greatly when paleomagnetic...

Social Movement Participation and Climate Change

Social Movement Participation and Climate Change   Reference library

James Goodman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Princen, T. , Manno, J. , & Martin, P. (Eds.). (2015). Ending the fossil fuel era . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Rosewarne, J. , Goodman, J. , & Pearse, R. (2013). Climate upsurge: The ethnography of climate movement politics . London: Routledge. Wall, D. (2010). The rise of the green left: Inside the worldwide eco-socialist movement . London: Pluto Press. References Alexander, S. , Nicholson, K. , & Wiseman, J. (2014). Fossil free: The development and significance of the fossil fuel divestment movement . Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne...

“Global Warming” versus “Climate Change” and the Influence of Labeling on Public Perceptions

“Global Warming” versus “Climate Change” and the Influence of Labeling on Public Perceptions   Reference library

Jonathon P. Schuldt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,279 words
Illustration(s):
2

...The role of consciousness in priming effects on categorization assimilation versus contrast as a function of awareness of the priming task. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 13 (3), 411–429. Lorenzoni, I. , Leiserowitz, A. , de Franca Doria, M. , Poortinga, W. , & Pidgeon, N. F. (2006). Cross-national comparisons of image associations with ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’ among laypeople in the United States of America and Great Britain 1. Journal of Risk Research , 9 (3), 265–281. McCright, A. M. , & Dunlap, R. E. (2011). The...

Psychological, Social, and Cultural Barriers to Communicating about Climate Change

Psychological, Social, and Cultural Barriers to Communicating about Climate Change   Reference library

Nathaniel Geiger, Brianna Middlewood, and Janet Swim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...014005. Frich, P. , Alexander, L. V. , Della-Marta, P. , Gleason, B. , Haylock, M. , Klein Tank, A. M. , et al. (2002). Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Research , 19 (3), 193–212. Gastil, J. , Braman, D. , Kahan, D. , & Slovic, P. (2011). The cultural orientation of mass political opinion . PS: Political Science and Politics , 44 (04), 711–714. Geiger, N. , & Swim, J. K. (2016). A social network analysis of religious communities . Presented at the annual meeting of...

Social Capital and Climate Change Adaptation

Social Capital and Climate Change Adaptation   Reference library

Daniel P. Aldrich, Courtney Page, and Christopher J. Paul

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., 24 (6), 1119–1132. France-Presse, Agence . (2016, April 27). Germany to give €1bn subsidy to boost electric car sales . The Guardian . Frankenberger, T. , Swallow, K. , Mueller, M. , Spangler, T. , Downen, J. , & Alexander, S. (2013). Feed the Future Learning Agenda Literature Review: Improving Resilience of Vulnerable Populations. Feed the Future . TANGO International. Georgetown Climate Center . (2016). State climate and energy profiles . Gil de Zúñiga, H. , Jung, N. , & Valenzuela, S. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals’ social...

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