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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Atavisms

Atavisms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...the rudiments for three toes, but the growth of the central toe normally outstrips that of the lateral toes, which are left behind as splint bones. Only the central toe contacts the ground and is functional. In three-toed horses—of which Julius Caesar's horse, and Bucephalos, the war horse of Alexander the Great, are examples—we hypothesize that a mutation allows the primordia of the side toes to continue growing for a longer period, resulting in toes of similar lengths. Associated changes in the ankle, muscles, ligaments, and tendons leads to the...

Genitalic Evolution

Genitalic Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...in the female reproductive tract to allow other, nonsperm seminal products into her blood, where they induce oviposition or inhibit remating in some flies; apparently douching the female in some male sharks; pulling the lower part of the female's reproductive tract inside out from her body in some flies and katydids; and squeezing the female with complex, species-specific rhythms. At first glance, the extremely complicated structure of male genitalia in many species seems to constitute a challenge to evolutionary theory: their complexity is far too great to be...

Human Sociobiology and Behavior

Human Sociobiology and Behavior   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...and other forms are reprehensible and deserving of punishment? Why do they attach great importance to these moral judgments even when they themselves are not directly affected by the behaviors in question? Alexander's answer is that human evolution has been driven primarily by competition between groups, and this has favored traits that allowed human beings to form larger, better-united groups. Kin altruism could not serve as a foundation for such large groups. Alexander suggested indirect reciprocity as one mechanism for forming larger groups. Indirect...

Mammals

Mammals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
5,871 words
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1

...the Hylobatidae or gibbons, and the Hominidae, which includes the three great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) as well as the human species Homo sapiens . Carnivores. The order Carnivora appears in the Paleocene and by the Eocene is represented in North America, Europe, and Asia. Early on the lineage divides into the Feliformia and the Caniformia. The feliforms are represented today by the mongooses, cats, civets, and hyenas. The caniforms include the weasels and allies, raccoons and allies, bears, canids, and an early offshoot, the...

Human Evolution

Human Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...Anatomy . New York, 1990. The best survey of hominoid functional and evolutionary morphology; extensively referenced; requires only a minimal background in human anatomy. Alexander, R., McN . The Human Machine . New York, 1992. A very good introduction to the physics of human musculo-skeletal design and movement, by the preeminent biomechanist of our time. Carrier, D. R. . “ The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution. ” Current Anthropology 25 1984: 483–495. One of the few papers to emphasize the possible importance of endurance...

Parent–Offspring Conflict

Parent–Offspring Conflict   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...need: if a baby can exaggerate the degree to which it requires extra investment, beyond the parent's power to detect the sham, it stands to gain at the parent's expense. This argument has great appeal. An offspring has direct physiological information about its own strength, condition, and need, but parental information on the same subjects is at least partially filtered through the offspring's own signals. If natural selection inflates those signals and parents cannot risk dismissing them summarily (lest they be accurate), the adults' overall “sales...

Origin of Life

Origin of Life   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...academic Alexander Oparin inhis book The Origin of Life on Earth ( 1936 ). They suggested that the seeds of life arose in space and the atmosphere in the form of various combinations of the CHNOPS elements, under the influence of electrical discharges, radiation, and other sources of energy. According to Haldane (reported in Wells et al., 1934 ), this material accumulated in the seas until “the primitive oceans reached the consistency of hot dilute soup.” In rapidly evaporating inland lakes and lagoons, the soup thickened. In some areas, it seeped...

Optimality Theory

Optimality Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
7,452 words
Illustration(s):
2

...data from animals in the wild, largely because of the difficulty of establishing encounter rates. In the laboratory, Krebs and his colleagues controlled the encounter rate by presenting birds, great tits, with food items on a conveyor belt; this experiment showed that the prey choice model could predict behavior (see Krebsand Davies , 1993 , chapter 3). Sih and Christensen ( 2001 ) review the success of prey choice models. Depositing Fuel for a Migratory Journey The more fuel that a bird carries, the farther it can fly, but the rate of energy...

Heterozygote Advantage

Heterozygote Advantage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,349 words
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6

...between the frequency of malaria and β thalassemia was observed in the Sardinian population, although when such associations were sought in other parts of the world they were not found. Furthermore, it was difficult to understand why the thalassemias were so widespread among so many different populations. There was much speculation about where the disease might have first arisen. One suggestion was in the ancient populations that inhabited Sicily, Greece, and parts of Italy, after which it spread eastward within the empire of Alexander the Great. Other...

Development

Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
11,771 words
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2

...throughout the animal kingdom, and there are striking parallels between these genes and their effects in both the invertebrates and vertebrates. Another process of great developmental importance is the emigration from the neural tube of a population of cells, called the neural crest. Neural crest cells migrate throughout the body and form a wide variety of derivatives ranging from pigment cells and components of the peripheral nervous system, to bones of the head and connective tissue elements of the head, many glands, and parts of the heart and great vessels....

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