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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Relaxation and Recovery in Sport and Performance

Relaxation and Recovery in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Maximilian Pelka and Michael Kellmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

... Sluiter, J. K. , Frings-Dresen, M. H. , van der Beek, A. J. , & Meijman, T. F. (2001). The relation between work-induced neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery, subjective need for recovery, and health status. Journal of Psychosomatic Research , 50 , 29–37. Small, E. (2002). Chronic musculoskeletal pain in young athletes. Pediatric Clinics of North America , 49 , 655–662. Sutherland, A. G. , Alexander, D. A. , & Hutchison, J. D. (2006). The mind does matter: Psychological and physical recovery after musculoskeletal trauma. Journal of...

Exercise and Mental Health Benefits

Exercise and Mental Health Benefits   Reference library

Aaron L. Slusher and Edmund O. Acevedo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...relied upon their ability to traverse great distances for nourishment, and in the face of persistent threats, utilized the evolutionarily conserved fight or flight response for survival. However, as modern humans have evolved higher cognitive abilities, coupled with the relatively modern emergence of sedentary lifestyles, the everyday need for physical activity (PA) has shifted from a means of daily survival to a practice necessary for the long-term maintenance of both physical and mental health. As a result, the challenges of routinely incorporating PA in...

Luria, Alexander Romanovich

Luria, Alexander Romanovich (1902–77)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
655 words

...Alexander Romanovich ( 1902–77 ). Soviet psychologist , probably the only one to become generally known outside the USSR after the Second World War. Born in Kazan of Jewish extraction, Luria was educated at the University of Kazan and graduated in social sciences in spite of his father's wish that he should qualify in medicine, which in fact he did several years later when his career in psychology underwent an unexpected check. His interest in psychology developed rapidly and while still a student he had the temerity to found a psychoanalytic circle in...

Aristotle

Aristotle (384–322bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,547 words

...moved to Asia Minor, where he spent some years devoted principally to the study of biology and zoology. In 343 he moved to Pella, where he served as tutor to King Philip's son, the future Alexander the Great . (What influence Aristotle may have had on that obnoxious young man is uncertain.) After further migrations, Aristotle returned to Athens in 335 , and for the next decade engaged in teaching and research in his own school in the Lyceum. He fled from Athens on the death of Alexander in 323 , and died a year later in Chalcis. His will, which has...

Locke, John

Locke, John (1632–1704)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
524 words

...probably the strongest influence on him, and became his close friend, student, and unofficial assistant. He graduated as an MA in 1658 and was elected a Senior Student of Christ Church and then a lecturer in Greek. After a brief excursion into diplomacy in 1665–6 he returned to Oxford to study medicine and collaborated with the great physician Thomas Sydenham . In 1667 he left Oxford to become personal physician to Lord Ashley , later first earl of Shaftesbury, whose life he was credited with saving by an operation. He was elected Fellow of the Royal...

puzzles

puzzles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,616 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a physical object that incorporates the definition given at the beginning of this article. The mechanical puzzle contains all that is required for its solution within itself. Legend tells that Gordius, a minor king in Anatolia c. 300 bc , had tied his ox cart to the temple gate with an intricate knot. As it was prophesied that whoever untied the Gordian Knot would rule all Asia, it may be considered as early example of both a topological puzzle and a puzzle competition. Alexander the Great arrived and promptly cut the knot. This has been held up as an...

Locke on the mind

Locke on the mind   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,727 words

...reserved that for the explanation of the involuntary connecting of ideas and held that the reliable connections of ideas were the result of natural or chosen connections ( Essay , ii . xii. 2). There are, of course, problems about what ‘natural’ means, about how the ideas of natural connections and voluntary connections would relate to one another and to the combining of primary mental qualities to give secondary mental qualities, and how far the analogy with the corresponding physical combinings would hold. (Published 1987) Peter Alexander Aaron, R. I. ...

artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,281 words

...) Igor Alexander Margaret Boden Ron Chrisley Igor Alexander The process of designing machines with abilities modelled on human thought. While this mostly involves writing computer programs with human-like characteristics, it has implications for the design of robots and raises philosophical questions about machine–human comparisons. 1. Origins and ambitions 2. Knowledge, logic, and learning 3. Evolution, agents, and brain–mind comparisons 1. Origins and ambitions Artificial intelligence may be said to have begun in 1950 when Claude Shannon of the Bell...

imagination

imagination   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,788 words
Illustration(s):
1

...V. , The Origins of Creativity . Foley, R. (1995). Humans before Humanity . Glastonbury, M. (1997). ‘I'll teach you differences: on the cultural presence of autistic lives’, Changing English , 4. Gruzelier, J. H. , Egner, T. , Valentine, E. , and Williamson, A. (2002). ‘Comparing learned EEG self-regulation and the Alexander technique as a means of enhancing musical performance’. In Stevens, C. et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition , Sydney 2002. Harris, P. L. (2000). The Work of the...

consciousness

consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
12,220 words

...known to be out there, then open the eyes and look at it. The qualia of the present visual world are suddenly startlingly vivid. So, perhaps an important role for qualia is to flag the present , so we are not confused with remembered past or anticipated future. 2. Exceptional cases This is not infallible. At least one person with exceptionally vivid memories has been described who confused memories with present reality. This is the remarkable case of Mr S, described by the Russian neuropsychologist Alexander Luria . Mr S was a professional memory man, with...

Cognitive Reserve in the Aging Brain

Cognitive Reserve in the Aging Brain   Reference library

Michael J. Valenzuela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
13,344 words
Illustration(s):
4

...passive notion of intellectual reserve was acquiescing to something more proactive: “The possibility that higher education facilitates mental exercise and stimulation and that increased use of the brain may help prevent dementia must also be considered” ( Mortimer & Graves, 1993 , pp. 13–20). At Columbia, Stern and colleagues were taking the potential impact of psychosocial factors seriously. Two pivotal studies shifted the field. In the first ( Stern, Alexander, Prohovnik, & Mayeux, 1992 ), they proposed a counter-intuitive but prescient hypothesis...

Intraindividual Variability in Lifespan Developmental Methodology

Intraindividual Variability in Lifespan Developmental Methodology   Reference library

Eric S. Cerino and Karen Hooker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
7,080 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the life span (pp. 258–279). New York, NY: Routledge. Stuss, D. T. , Murphy, K. J. , Binns, M. A. , & Alexander, M. P. (2003). Staying on the job: The frontal lobes control individual performance variability . Brain , 126 , 2363–2380. West, R. , Murphy, K. J. , Armilio, M. L. , Craik, F. I. , & Stuss, D. T. (2002). Lapses of intention and performance variability reveal age-related increases in fluctuations of executive control . Brain and Cognition , 49 , 402–419. Wilhelm, F. H. , Roth, W. T. , & Sackner, M. A. (2003). The...

Speech Comprehension and Cognition in Adult Aging

Speech Comprehension and Cognition in Adult Aging   Reference library

Nicole D. Ayasse, Alexis R. Johns, and Arthur Wingfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
14,638 words
Illustration(s):
3

...when the identity of a spoken word remains uncertain until the listener hears more of the context that follows the indistinct word ( Connine, Blasko, & Hall, 1991 ; Grosjean, 1985 ). The top panel of Figure 2 is taken from a study by Wingfield, Alexander, and Cavigelli ( 1994 ) that explored this caveat. It shows the acoustic waveform of an audio recording of a sentence spoken by a talker speaking in a relaxed, conversational manner. It can be seen that the words him, warm , and and run together with no clear temporal breaks between them. The same...

Inflammation as a Biomarker Method in Lifespan Developmental Methodology

Inflammation as a Biomarker Method in Lifespan Developmental Methodology   Reference library

Stephanie J. Wilson, Alex Woody, and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
9,846 words

..., 163 , 1630–1633. Pavlov, V. A. , & Tracey, K. J. (2005). The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway . Brain, Behavior, and Immunity , 19 , 493–499. Pearson, T. A. , Mensah, G. A. , Alexander, R. W. , Anderson, J. L. , Cannon, R. O. , 3rd, Criqui, M. , … Vinicor, F. (2003). Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: Application to clinical and public health practice: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation , 107 , 499–511. Plant, D...

binocular rivalry

binocular rivalry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,748 words

...manipulations. Such interventions may ultimately provide a clearer picture of the neuronal mechanisms underlying perceptual alternation and visual suppression during rivalry. Understanding the neuronal mechanisms causing binocular rivalry may have direct implications for our understanding of how a percept gets established and supported in the brain. It thus has been and continues to be a vital and fascinating paradigm for the scientific study of visual awareness. Alexander Maier and David A. Leopold Blake, R. and Logothetis, N. K. (2002). ‘ Visual...

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