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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Atavisms

Atavisms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the rudiments for three toes, but the growth of the central toe normally outstrips that of the lateral toes, which are left behind as splint bones. Only the central toe contacts the ground and is functional. In three-toed horses—of which Julius Caesar's horse, and Bucephalos, the war horse of Alexander the Great, are examples—we hypothesize that a mutation allows the primordia of the side toes to continue growing for a longer period, resulting in toes of similar lengths. Associated changes in the ankle, muscles, ligaments, and tendons leads to the...

Genitalic Evolution

Genitalic Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in the female reproductive tract to allow other, nonsperm seminal products into her blood, where they induce oviposition or inhibit remating in some flies; apparently douching the female in some male sharks; pulling the lower part of the female's reproductive tract inside out from her body in some flies and katydids; and squeezing the female with complex, species-specific rhythms. At first glance, the extremely complicated structure of male genitalia in many species seems to constitute a challenge to evolutionary theory: their complexity is far too great to be...

Human Sociobiology and Behavior

Human Sociobiology and Behavior   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and other forms are reprehensible and deserving of punishment? Why do they attach great importance to these moral judgments even when they themselves are not directly affected by the behaviors in question? Alexander's answer is that human evolution has been driven primarily by competition between groups, and this has favored traits that allowed human beings to form larger, better-united groups. Kin altruism could not serve as a foundation for such large groups. Alexander suggested indirect reciprocity as one mechanism for forming larger groups. Indirect...

Mammals

Mammals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
5,871 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Hylobatidae or gibbons, and the Hominidae, which includes the three great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) as well as the human species Homo sapiens . Carnivores. The order Carnivora appears in the Paleocene and by the Eocene is represented in North America, Europe, and Asia. Early on the lineage divides into the Feliformia and the Caniformia. The feliforms are represented today by the mongooses, cats, civets, and hyenas. The caniforms include the weasels and allies, raccoons and allies, bears, canids, and an early offshoot, the...

Human Evolution

Human Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Anatomy . New York, 1990. The best survey of hominoid functional and evolutionary morphology; extensively referenced; requires only a minimal background in human anatomy. Alexander, R., McN . The Human Machine . New York, 1992. A very good introduction to the physics of human musculo-skeletal design and movement, by the preeminent biomechanist of our time. Carrier, D. R. . “ The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution. ” Current Anthropology 25 1984: 483–495. One of the few papers to emphasize the possible importance of endurance...

Parent–Offspring Conflict

Parent–Offspring Conflict   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...need: if a baby can exaggerate the degree to which it requires extra investment, beyond the parent's power to detect the sham, it stands to gain at the parent's expense. This argument has great appeal. An offspring has direct physiological information about its own strength, condition, and need, but parental information on the same subjects is at least partially filtered through the offspring's own signals. If natural selection inflates those signals and parents cannot risk dismissing them summarily (lest they be accurate), the adults' overall “sales...

Origin of Life

Origin of Life   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...academic Alexander Oparin inhis book The Origin of Life on Earth ( 1936 ). They suggested that the seeds of life arose in space and the atmosphere in the form of various combinations of the CHNOPS elements, under the influence of electrical discharges, radiation, and other sources of energy. According to Haldane (reported in Wells et al., 1934 ), this material accumulated in the seas until “the primitive oceans reached the consistency of hot dilute soup.” In rapidly evaporating inland lakes and lagoons, the soup thickened. In some areas, it seeped...

Optimality Theory

Optimality Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
7,452 words
Illustration(s):
2

...data from animals in the wild, largely because of the difficulty of establishing encounter rates. In the laboratory, Krebs and his colleagues controlled the encounter rate by presenting birds, great tits, with food items on a conveyor belt; this experiment showed that the prey choice model could predict behavior (see Krebsand Davies , 1993 , chapter 3). Sih and Christensen ( 2001 ) review the success of prey choice models. Depositing Fuel for a Migratory Journey The more fuel that a bird carries, the farther it can fly, but the rate of energy...

Heterozygote Advantage

Heterozygote Advantage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,349 words
Illustration(s):
6

...between the frequency of malaria and β thalassemia was observed in the Sardinian population, although when such associations were sought in other parts of the world they were not found. Furthermore, it was difficult to understand why the thalassemias were so widespread among so many different populations. There was much speculation about where the disease might have first arisen. One suggestion was in the ancient populations that inhabited Sicily, Greece, and parts of Italy, after which it spread eastward within the empire of Alexander the Great. Other...

Development

Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
11,771 words
Illustration(s):
2

...throughout the animal kingdom, and there are striking parallels between these genes and their effects in both the invertebrates and vertebrates. Another process of great developmental importance is the emigration from the neural tube of a population of cells, called the neural crest. Neural crest cells migrate throughout the body and form a wide variety of derivatives ranging from pigment cells and components of the peripheral nervous system, to bones of the head and connective tissue elements of the head, many glands, and parts of the heart and great vessels....

Gorillas

Gorillas   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
6,328 words
Illustration(s):
7

...members of the group will gather around the silverback 1. Females with infants 2 tend to be closest, while females without infants 3 stay in the background on the periphery of the group. While a subadult male 4 is merely tolerated, infants 5 will play close to the silverback, remaining within his sphere of protection. Life in the Harem Social Behavior Of all the great apes (family Hominidae), the gorilla shows the most stable grouping patterns. The same adult individuals travel together for months and usually years at a time. It is...

Mongooses

Mongooses   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,734 words
Illustration(s):
4

...tip black. Jon Rood / W. Chris Wozencraft / Scott Creel Tough at the Top The costs of dominance in common dwarf mongoose packs Our understanding of evolution by natural selection emphasizes that individuals who survive and reproduce better than their contemporaries will pass on the traits that favored their success. Conversely, the traits of individuals that do not survive and breed will disappear. Ultimately, the number of offspring, grandoffspring, and great-grandoffspring is the currency by which evolutionary success and failure are measured. At...

Alexander Technique

Alexander Technique   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,112 words

...1892 , Alexander made careful observations of himself and experimented with the way in which he spoke. He did this with nothing more elaborate than a simple arrangement of mirrors. He discovered a pattern of habits which were putting a strain on his larynx and which were responsible for his vocal problems. Through his efforts to change his habits and restore his voice to its proper functioning, he discovered a great deal about human co-ordination and created the method which is taught today as the Alexander Technique. The particular habits which were the source...

Hercules

Hercules   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
442 words

...who had previously tried to rape her. The poison was used to impregnate Hercules' robe, but it ate away his flesh, causing him unbearable pain. A number of Greek rulers claimed descent from Heracles as a symbol of their power; these included the Macedonian royal family, whose most notable member was Alexander the Great . The cult of Heracles may have been the first foreign cult to be introduced to Rome; he was particularly popular with merchants, because of the amount of travel involved in his labours. Dogs were excluded from his sanctuary at Rome; maybe he...

palmistry

palmistry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,005 words
Illustration(s):
1

...meaning to their lives. At a time when science is increasingly investigating the interrelationship of consciousness with matter, the study of hand reading could significantly enrich scientific investigation. Due to the suppression of hand reading within European culture, its history is obscure. However, notable palmists include Napoleon Bonaparte , Alexander the Great , Homer , Hippocrates , Galen , Paracelsus , and Robert Fludd . Dylan Warren-Davis Warren-Davis, D. (2001). The hand reveals . 2nd edn. Chrysalis Books Ltd., London. See also hand...

Amazons

Amazons   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
621 words

...killed by Achilles. One of the labours imposed on Heracles (the Roman Hercules) was to gain possession of the girdle of the Amazonian queen, Hippolyte. Hercules' companion, Theseus, ravished Princess Antiope, Hippolyte's sister. The Amazons also crop up at the time of Alexander the Great, and Pompey was said to have come across them in Mithridates' army. The deities they worshipped were Ares (whom they saw as a god of war of Thracian origin), and Artemis — not the Greek goddess but the Asiatic deity. The origin of the story of the Amazons has been widely...

anthropomorphism

anthropomorphism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
740 words

...Alexander the Great decided that his mother's stories of having been impregnated by a god in the form of a snake conveyed divine status on him. The idea that a man could show himself to be a god by achieving something which was impossible for a mere mortal, such as conquest of a large proportion of the known world, meant that subsequent great generals could hint at such a status for themselves. From the third century bc , there was increased contact with Egypt, where for many centuries anthropomorphic representations of the gods had existed alongside the...

body politic

body politic   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,091 words

...politic The image of the human body and its pervasiveness in both thought and literature attest to Alexander Pope's declaration that the only true study of mankind is man himself. Nowhere is this sentiment more resolutely expressed than in the idea of the body politic. Ostensibly an organicist term for civil society, which enjoyed much currency during the seventeenth century, it nevertheless has a long and interesting genesis. Essentially concerned with organic metaphors for the social order of society, the term has endured into the parlance of the present...

synaesthesia

synaesthesia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
956 words

...was experienced by the patient ‘S’ who was intensively studied by the Russian neuropsychologist, Alexander Luria . Presented with a tone of 2000 Hz at 113 decibels, S said, ‘It looks something like fireworks tinged with a pink-red hue. The strip of colour feels rough and unpleasant and it has an ugly taste — rather like that of a briny pickle.’ In this example a sound is eliciting experiences of colour, touch, and taste. Synaesthetes are not simply using metaphorical language to describe sensations that are, in reality, no different from those of other...

Cardinal Grosbeaks

Cardinal Grosbeaks   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,319 words
Illustration(s):
4

...home in southern Mexico and Central America. In the American west, the Lazuli bunting replaces the Indigo bunting. The male has a turquoise-blue head and back, with a cinnamon-colored breast, white belly, and two white wing-bars. The female is much like the female Indigo bunting in color, but has two faint wing-bars. The ranges of the Lazuli and Indigo buntings overlap on the Great Plains of the US Midwest, and the two species hybridize. In southwestern Mexico the Orange-breasted bunting is locally common. The male has a green cap with a turquoise-blue head...

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