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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Lakes

Lakes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,313 words
Illustration(s):
2

... et al., 1999 ). The abrupt change in the level of the Caspian (2.5 meters between 1978 and 1995 ) has also been attributed to ENSO phenomena ( Arpe et al., 2000 ). Similarly, the 3.7-meter rise in the level of the Great Salt Lake between 1982 and 1986 was at least partly related to the record rainfall and snowfall in its catchment during the 1982–1983 El Niño ( Arnow and Stephens , 1990 ). The enormous changes that occur in the volume of Lake Eyre (South Australia) result from ENSO-related changes in inflow, with the greatest flooding...

Lakes

Lakes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,061 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of change is the Valencia Basin in Venezuela (Böckh, 1973). It was the declining level of the waters in this lake that so struck the great German geographer Alexander von Humboldt in 1800 . He recorded its level as being about 422 meters above sea level, whereas previous observations on its level, made by Antonio Manzano in 1727 , had established it as being at 426 meters. The 1968 level was about 405 meters, representing a fall of no less that 21 meters in about 240 years. Humboldt believed that the cause of the declining level was the deforestation...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cleared landscapes. Rudimentary data on the distribution of plant and animal species in habitats destroyed by clearing also constrain definitive statements concerning the extinction of species or contraction of their geographic ranges. Australia. Figure 1. Boundaries of the Australian States and Territories and Their Capitals.The arid zone that normally receives less than 500 millimeters of rainfall per annum is the area within the dashed line. Shading indicates the areas of land clearance. (Adapted from Alexander, 1996.) Many habitat fragments in cleared...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...that masks the enormous interannual rainfall variability that characterizes all Australian climates. Aridity is a consequence of the absence of any great mountain ranges and the centering of the subtropical high-pressure belt over the continent. The highs also cause contrasting seasonal patterns in northern and southern Australia. In the austral summer months, southern Australian has a hot and dry climate that is conducive to episodic intense wildfires. Conversely, in northern Australia the climate is hot and wet due to the dominance of the summer monsoon,...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...The achievements of the great nineteenth-century engineers such as Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Ferdinand de Lesseps still seem like the work of titans; so, too, do the achievements of the industrial magnates of the time, such as Andrew Carnegie and Cecil Rhodes . The list can be extended into the twentieth century, with such men as Thomas Alva Edison and Henry Ford , though perhaps the aura of heroism is brightest in the earliest generations, the ones closer to the transformation of a world of wood and muscle into a world of steel and engines. The...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...a site—the planet Earth—already fully stocked, not only with tiny plants but other trees. The tiny plants are the world's tribal societies, much atrophied over the course of the last several centuries; the other trees are the civilizations that by the European Middle Ages had arisen on every continent and some of which have vanished, while others are gnarled survivors. This other vegetation still struggles to survive under the great shade cast by the tree that has become the world's dominant culture, and we shall return to it. Now, however, consider the giant....

Mobile Earth

Mobile Earth   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...ideas about continental drift since before the nineteenth century, the first serious proponent of this hypothesis was Alfred Wegener , in 1912 ( Wegener , 1966 ). He used a wide variety of data to suggest mobility of the continents. Although many of his ideas have been proven correct, he was wrong in one major respect, the rate of motion: his speeds were more than a factor of ten larger than those now known to exist. Early supporters of his ideas were Alexander du Toit ( 1937 ) and Arthur Holmes ( 1944 ). The field advanced greatly when paleomagnetic...

list of national parks

list of national parks   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Biscayne 699.8 1980 Black Canyon of the Gunnison 133.3 1999 Bryce Canyon 145 1928 Canyonlands 1366.2 1964 Capitol Reef 979 1971 Carlsbad Caverns 189.3 1930 Channel Islands 1009.9 1980 Congaree 197.4 2003 Crater Lake 741.5 1902 Cuyahoga Valley 133 2000 Death Valley 13 647.6 1994 Denali 19 185.8 1917 Dry Tortugas 261.8 1992 Everglades 6104.8 1934 Gates of the Arctic 30 448.1 1980 Glacier 4101.8 1910 Glacier Bay 13 050.5 1980 Grand Canyon 4926.7 1919 Grand Teton 1254.5 1929 Great Basin 312.3 1986 Great Sand Dunes 173.9 2004 Great Smoky Mountains 2110.4 1934...

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