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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Aristotle

Aristotle (384—322 bce)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...teacher. Aristotle compiled his observations of the heavens around 340 bce and set them down in Meteorologica , a four-volume text that was considered the authority on weather theory for more than 2,000 years and ultimately led to the science of modern meteorology. Born in 384, Aristotle developed an early interest in mathematics and biology; at age 17 he became a member of Plato's Academy, where he studied for 20 years. He later served as tutor to the 13-year-old prince who would become Alexander the Great. In 335, Aristotle began his own school in Athens....

Painting, Sculpture, and Weather

Painting, Sculpture, and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...weather's manifestations as an art form shaped but not controlled by the sculptor's hand. The well-known mobiles of the U.S. sculptor Alexander Calder ( 1898–1976 ) respond to every movement of the air, forming and reforming like clouds in a continuous process of creation and renewal. [ See also Cultural Works Addressing Climate and Weather ; and History, Climate, and Weather .] Bibliography Bearden, R. , and H. Henderson . A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the Present . New York: Pantheon, 1993. Cohn, S. Arthur Dove: Nature as...

Teleconnections

Teleconnections   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Union, 2003. Liu, Z. , and M. Alexander, M. “ Atmospheric Bridge, Oceanic Tunnel, and Global Climatic Teleconnections .” Reviews of Geophysics 45 (2007): RG2005, doi:10.1029/2005RG000172. Mo, K. C. , and R. E. Livezey . “ Tropical-Extratropical Geopotential Height Teleconnections during the Northern Hemisphere Winter .” Monthly Weather Review 114 (1986): 2488–2515. David D. Houghton ; revised and updated by Steven Quiring * Correlations may be either positive or negative for the variables listed. In all cases, the variables are for monthly or...

Climatic Zones

Climatic Zones   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,955 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the types of wind zones and calm zones. Although the term belt is usually used rather than zone, these circulation characteristics essentially constitute zones. The horse latitude calms, the trade winds, and the westerly winds are zonal concepts based on wind patterns. Zonal types of upper level flows were also labeled. The simple zonal concept of circulation, although attractive, had great limitations. Twentieth-century meteorologists and climatologists have striven for more realism in model construction, and the broad zones identified by the...

Literature and Weather

Literature and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...not the weather “sympathizes” with the events of the Civil War: since this war, and the wide and deep national agitation, strange analogies, different combinations, a different sunlight, or absence of it; different products even out of the ground. After every great battle, a great storm. Even civic events the same … Indeed, the heavens, the elements, all the meteorological influences, have run riot for weeks past. The recourse to weather imagery to figure the events of a war is generally linked to an effort to account for the violence, the bloodshed, and the...

Hydrological Cycle

Hydrological Cycle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,376 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the critical importance of the water cycle, in particular precipitation, in human affairs. Flood damage estimates are in the billions of U.S. dollars annually, with thousands of lives lost, whereas drought costs are of similar magnitude and often lead to devastating wildfires and heat waves. The loss of life and property from extreme hydrological events has therefore caused society to focus on the causes and predictability of these events. Tropical cyclones typically have the highest property damage loss of any extreme event and are therefore of great...

Ethics for Climate Change Communicators

Ethics for Climate Change Communicators   Reference library

Michael Lamb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the case of climate change. 20 Kant’s second formulation of the categorical imperative, however, provides support for a more patient-centered or victim-centered approach ( Alexander & Moore, 2015 ). The idea that animates his so-called Formula of Humanity is the principle of respect: “So act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means” ( 1996a , 4:429; see also Driver, 2007 , p. 96). On this account, communicators ought to act in ways that respect the...

Social Movement Participation and Climate Change

Social Movement Participation and Climate Change   Reference library

James Goodman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Princen, T. , Manno, J. , & Martin, P. (Eds.). (2015). Ending the fossil fuel era . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Rosewarne, J. , Goodman, J. , & Pearse, R. (2013). Climate upsurge: The ethnography of climate movement politics . London: Routledge. Wall, D. (2010). The rise of the green left: Inside the worldwide eco-socialist movement . London: Pluto Press. References Alexander, S. , Nicholson, K. , & Wiseman, J. (2014). Fossil free: The development and significance of the fossil fuel divestment movement . Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne...

“Global Warming” versus “Climate Change” and the Influence of Labeling on Public Perceptions

“Global Warming” versus “Climate Change” and the Influence of Labeling on Public Perceptions   Reference library

Jonathon P. Schuldt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,279 words
Illustration(s):
2

...The role of consciousness in priming effects on categorization assimilation versus contrast as a function of awareness of the priming task. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 13 (3), 411–429. Lorenzoni, I. , Leiserowitz, A. , de Franca Doria, M. , Poortinga, W. , & Pidgeon, N. F. (2006). Cross-national comparisons of image associations with ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’ among laypeople in the United States of America and Great Britain 1. Journal of Risk Research , 9 (3), 265–281. McCright, A. M. , & Dunlap, R. E. (2011). The...

Psychological, Social, and Cultural Barriers to Communicating about Climate Change

Psychological, Social, and Cultural Barriers to Communicating about Climate Change   Reference library

Nathaniel Geiger, Brianna Middlewood, and Janet Swim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...014005. Frich, P. , Alexander, L. V. , Della-Marta, P. , Gleason, B. , Haylock, M. , Klein Tank, A. M. , et al. (2002). Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Research , 19 (3), 193–212. Gastil, J. , Braman, D. , Kahan, D. , & Slovic, P. (2011). The cultural orientation of mass political opinion . PS: Political Science and Politics , 44 (04), 711–714. Geiger, N. , & Swim, J. K. (2016). A social network analysis of religious communities . Presented at the annual meeting of...

Social Capital and Climate Change Adaptation

Social Capital and Climate Change Adaptation   Reference library

Daniel P. Aldrich, Courtney Page, and Christopher J. Paul

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., 24 (6), 1119–1132. France-Presse, Agence . (2016, April 27). Germany to give €1bn subsidy to boost electric car sales . The Guardian . Frankenberger, T. , Swallow, K. , Mueller, M. , Spangler, T. , Downen, J. , & Alexander, S. (2013). Feed the Future Learning Agenda Literature Review: Improving Resilience of Vulnerable Populations. Feed the Future . TANGO International. Georgetown Climate Center . (2016). State climate and energy profiles . Gil de Zúñiga, H. , Jung, N. , & Valenzuela, S. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals’ social...

Humboldt, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von

Humboldt, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von (1769–1859)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von ( 1769–1859 ) A Prussian naturalist and physicist , and great explorer, Humboldt made contributions to the study of volcanoes, vegetation and its relation to climate, ocean currents, and mountain ranges. He made a particular study of geophysics , aiming to collect and correlate all relevant data, and played an important role in the international geomagnetic survey of 1834 , which determined declinations and inclinations...

Carboniferous

Carboniferous   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,276 words
Illustration(s):
1

...three series exist in the former USSR. Twenty-five stages have been named in western Europe; rather more have been erected in what is now Russia. Regional differences are also embodied in the American divisions of the system. Despite the general international usage of the European subdivisions, the American are almost exclusively used in North American literature. Mississippian was the term first applied in 1870 by Alexander Winchell ( 1824–1891 ) to the limestone lying beneath the coal-bearing strata in the Mississippi valley. In 1891 Henry Shaler...

geological controversies

geological controversies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... Emile Argand , Alexander du Toit , and Arthur Holmes , the last of whom provided a plausible mechanism for drift involving convection in the mantle. Despite their efforts, supporters of continental drift were generally dismissed as cranks, and by the middle of the twentieth century the hypothesis had been almost totally rejected by Earth scientists. The situation was radically transformed by research developments after the Second World War, most notably in the study of rock magnetism, and a vastly increased knowledge of what underlies the oceans. These...

Jurassic

Jurassic   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,706 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The splendidly fossiliferous limestones and shales of the Jura Mountains of Switzerland attracted the attention of the early scientists of Europe long before their true nature was realized. They eventually drew the attention of the traveller and scientist, Alexander von Humboldt ( 1769–1859 ) who in 1795 had written about them, using the term Jura-Kalkstein . Somewhat later, when Leopold von Buch came to study them in the 1830s, their correlation with similar fossiliferous beds in England and Germany became apparent to him and he used Humboldt's...

list of national parks

list of national parks   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Biscayne 699.8 1980 Black Canyon of the Gunnison 133.3 1999 Bryce Canyon 145 1928 Canyonlands 1366.2 1964 Capitol Reef 979 1971 Carlsbad Caverns 189.3 1930 Channel Islands 1009.9 1980 Congaree 197.4 2003 Crater Lake 741.5 1902 Cuyahoga Valley 133 2000 Death Valley 13 647.6 1994 Denali 19 185.8 1917 Dry Tortugas 261.8 1992 Everglades 6104.8 1934 Gates of the Arctic 30 448.1 1980 Glacier 4101.8 1910 Glacier Bay 13 050.5 1980 Grand Canyon 4926.7 1919 Grand Teton 1254.5 1929 Great Basin 312.3 1986 Great Sand Dunes 173.9 2004 Great Smoky Mountains 2110.4 1934...

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