You are looking at 1-20 of 178 entries  for:

  • All: Alexander the Great x
  • Science and technology x
clear all

View:

Overview

Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

macedoine

macedoine   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...diced very small, served either hot or cold. The term is also applied to fruit salads made of finely chopped fruit. The term is of French origin, and is probably a reference to the proverbially heterogeneous mixture of races in Macedonia (a region in the Balkans) in the time of Alexander the Great. Since it was acquired by English in the early nineteenth century, it has been used sporadically in the metaphorical sense ‘medley, assortment’: ‘Such is the tattle of our beaus. These simple elements compose…The Macedoine of London-talk’, Henry Luttrell, Advice...

sugar

sugar   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...first penetrated the continent of Europe, the only sweetening agent they had available to them in significant quantities was honey. In India, however, there grew a large stout plant of the grass family whose juice when refined (a process probably discovered about 5000 bc ) produced deliciously sweet crystals. These were named in Sanskrit śakarā , which originally meant ‘gravel, grit’. Gradually word of the wondrous substance spread westwards. Alexander the Great's general Nearchus, for instance, in the fourth century bc , reported that the Indians had a cane...

Aristotle

Aristotle (384—322 bce)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...teacher. Aristotle compiled his observations of the heavens around 340 bce and set them down in Meteorologica , a four-volume text that was considered the authority on weather theory for more than 2,000 years and ultimately led to the science of modern meteorology. Born in 384, Aristotle developed an early interest in mathematics and biology; at age 17 he became a member of Plato's Academy, where he studied for 20 years. He later served as tutor to the 13-year-old prince who would become Alexander the Great. In 335, Aristotle began his own school in Athens....

Lakes

Lakes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,313 words
Illustration(s):
2

... et al., 1999 ). The abrupt change in the level of the Caspian (2.5 meters between 1978 and 1995 ) has also been attributed to ENSO phenomena ( Arpe et al., 2000 ). Similarly, the 3.7-meter rise in the level of the Great Salt Lake between 1982 and 1986 was at least partly related to the record rainfall and snowfall in its catchment during the 1982–1983 El Niño ( Arnow and Stephens , 1990 ). The enormous changes that occur in the volume of Lake Eyre (South Australia) result from ENSO-related changes in inflow, with the greatest flooding...

Lakes

Lakes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,061 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of change is the Valencia Basin in Venezuela (Böckh, 1973). It was the declining level of the waters in this lake that so struck the great German geographer Alexander von Humboldt in 1800 . He recorded its level as being about 422 meters above sea level, whereas previous observations on its level, made by Antonio Manzano in 1727 , had established it as being at 426 meters. The 1968 level was about 405 meters, representing a fall of no less that 21 meters in about 240 years. Humboldt believed that the cause of the declining level was the deforestation...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cleared landscapes. Rudimentary data on the distribution of plant and animal species in habitats destroyed by clearing also constrain definitive statements concerning the extinction of species or contraction of their geographic ranges. Australia. Figure 1. Boundaries of the Australian States and Territories and Their Capitals.The arid zone that normally receives less than 500 millimeters of rainfall per annum is the area within the dashed line. Shading indicates the areas of land clearance. (Adapted from Alexander, 1996.) Many habitat fragments in cleared...

Painting, Sculpture, and Weather

Painting, Sculpture, and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...weather's manifestations as an art form shaped but not controlled by the sculptor's hand. The well-known mobiles of the U.S. sculptor Alexander Calder ( 1898–1976 ) respond to every movement of the air, forming and reforming like clouds in a continuous process of creation and renewal. [ See also Cultural Works Addressing Climate and Weather ; and History, Climate, and Weather .] Bibliography Bearden, R. , and H. Henderson . A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the Present . New York: Pantheon, 1993. Cohn, S. Arthur Dove: Nature as...

Atavisms

Atavisms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the rudiments for three toes, but the growth of the central toe normally outstrips that of the lateral toes, which are left behind as splint bones. Only the central toe contacts the ground and is functional. In three-toed horses—of which Julius Caesar's horse, and Bucephalos, the war horse of Alexander the Great, are examples—we hypothesize that a mutation allows the primordia of the side toes to continue growing for a longer period, resulting in toes of similar lengths. Associated changes in the ankle, muscles, ligaments, and tendons leads to the...

Teleconnections

Teleconnections   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Union, 2003. Liu, Z. , and M. Alexander, M. “ Atmospheric Bridge, Oceanic Tunnel, and Global Climatic Teleconnections .” Reviews of Geophysics 45 (2007): RG2005, doi:10.1029/2005RG000172. Mo, K. C. , and R. E. Livezey . “ Tropical-Extratropical Geopotential Height Teleconnections during the Northern Hemisphere Winter .” Monthly Weather Review 114 (1986): 2488–2515. David D. Houghton ; revised and updated by Steven Quiring * Correlations may be either positive or negative for the variables listed. In all cases, the variables are for monthly or...

Genitalic Evolution

Genitalic Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in the female reproductive tract to allow other, nonsperm seminal products into her blood, where they induce oviposition or inhibit remating in some flies; apparently douching the female in some male sharks; pulling the lower part of the female's reproductive tract inside out from her body in some flies and katydids; and squeezing the female with complex, species-specific rhythms. At first glance, the extremely complicated structure of male genitalia in many species seems to constitute a challenge to evolutionary theory: their complexity is far too great to be...

Climatic Zones

Climatic Zones   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,955 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the types of wind zones and calm zones. Although the term belt is usually used rather than zone, these circulation characteristics essentially constitute zones. The horse latitude calms, the trade winds, and the westerly winds are zonal concepts based on wind patterns. Zonal types of upper level flows were also labeled. The simple zonal concept of circulation, although attractive, had great limitations. Twentieth-century meteorologists and climatologists have striven for more realism in model construction, and the broad zones identified by the...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...that masks the enormous interannual rainfall variability that characterizes all Australian climates. Aridity is a consequence of the absence of any great mountain ranges and the centering of the subtropical high-pressure belt over the continent. The highs also cause contrasting seasonal patterns in northern and southern Australia. In the austral summer months, southern Australian has a hot and dry climate that is conducive to episodic intense wildfires. Conversely, in northern Australia the climate is hot and wet due to the dominance of the summer monsoon,...

Human Sociobiology and Behavior

Human Sociobiology and Behavior   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and other forms are reprehensible and deserving of punishment? Why do they attach great importance to these moral judgments even when they themselves are not directly affected by the behaviors in question? Alexander's answer is that human evolution has been driven primarily by competition between groups, and this has favored traits that allowed human beings to form larger, better-united groups. Kin altruism could not serve as a foundation for such large groups. Alexander suggested indirect reciprocity as one mechanism for forming larger groups. Indirect...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...The achievements of the great nineteenth-century engineers such as Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Ferdinand de Lesseps still seem like the work of titans; so, too, do the achievements of the industrial magnates of the time, such as Andrew Carnegie and Cecil Rhodes . The list can be extended into the twentieth century, with such men as Thomas Alva Edison and Henry Ford , though perhaps the aura of heroism is brightest in the earliest generations, the ones closer to the transformation of a world of wood and muscle into a world of steel and engines. The...

Mammals

Mammals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
5,871 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Hylobatidae or gibbons, and the Hominidae, which includes the three great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) as well as the human species Homo sapiens . Carnivores. The order Carnivora appears in the Paleocene and by the Eocene is represented in North America, Europe, and Asia. Early on the lineage divides into the Feliformia and the Caniformia. The feliforms are represented today by the mongooses, cats, civets, and hyenas. The caniforms include the weasels and allies, raccoons and allies, bears, canids, and an early offshoot, the...

Literature and Weather

Literature and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...not the weather “sympathizes” with the events of the Civil War: since this war, and the wide and deep national agitation, strange analogies, different combinations, a different sunlight, or absence of it; different products even out of the ground. After every great battle, a great storm. Even civic events the same … Indeed, the heavens, the elements, all the meteorological influences, have run riot for weeks past. The recourse to weather imagery to figure the events of a war is generally linked to an effort to account for the violence, the bloodshed, and the...

Human Evolution

Human Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Anatomy . New York, 1990. The best survey of hominoid functional and evolutionary morphology; extensively referenced; requires only a minimal background in human anatomy. Alexander, R., McN . The Human Machine . New York, 1992. A very good introduction to the physics of human musculo-skeletal design and movement, by the preeminent biomechanist of our time. Carrier, D. R. . “ The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution. ” Current Anthropology 25 1984: 483–495. One of the few papers to emphasize the possible importance of endurance...

Parent–Offspring Conflict

Parent–Offspring Conflict   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...need: if a baby can exaggerate the degree to which it requires extra investment, beyond the parent's power to detect the sham, it stands to gain at the parent's expense. This argument has great appeal. An offspring has direct physiological information about its own strength, condition, and need, but parental information on the same subjects is at least partially filtered through the offspring's own signals. If natural selection inflates those signals and parents cannot risk dismissing them summarily (lest they be accurate), the adults' overall “sales...

Hydrological Cycle

Hydrological Cycle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,376 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the critical importance of the water cycle, in particular precipitation, in human affairs. Flood damage estimates are in the billions of U.S. dollars annually, with thousands of lives lost, whereas drought costs are of similar magnitude and often lead to devastating wildfires and heat waves. The loss of life and property from extreme hydrological events has therefore caused society to focus on the causes and predictability of these events. Tropical cyclones typically have the highest property damage loss of any extreme event and are therefore of great...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...a site—the planet Earth—already fully stocked, not only with tiny plants but other trees. The tiny plants are the world's tribal societies, much atrophied over the course of the last several centuries; the other trees are the civilizations that by the European Middle Ages had arisen on every continent and some of which have vanished, while others are gnarled survivors. This other vegetation still struggles to survive under the great shade cast by the tree that has become the world's dominant culture, and we shall return to it. Now, however, consider the giant....

View: