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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (b. 11 December 1918)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,708 words

...from fiction and The Gulag Archipelago, and “Two Hundred Years Together.” Scammell, Michael . Solzhenitsyn: A Biography . New York: W.W. Norton, 1984. One of the two main biographies of Solzhenitsyn in English; the other is Thomas, 1999, cited below. Solzhenitsyn, Alexander . Letter to Soviet Leaders from A. Solzhenitsyn . London: Collins: Harvill Press, 1974. One of Solzhenitsyn's main statements of his political ideas made during the Soviet period. Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isaevich . The Russian Question at the End of the Twentieth Century . New...

Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,477 words

...the 1920s to the First Half of the 1950s]. 7 vols. Moscow: Rosspen, 2004–2005. Polian, Pavel . Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR . Budapest and New York: Central European University Press, 2004. Service, Robert . Stalin: A Biography . London: Macmillan, 2004. Shearer, David . Policing Stalin's Socialism: Social Order and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union , 1928 – 1953 (forthcoming). Solzhenitsyn, Alexander I. The Gulag Archipelago . Translated from the Russian Thomas P. Whitney and Harry Willetts . 3...

Tito

Tito   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,988 words

...This was also the guarantee that they would all embrace “the Yugoslav idea” and the official propaganda line, which taught them that they were Yugoslavs before they were Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, or Muslims. Yet there were many signs that the Yugoslav idea was not accepted everywhere. Many Slovenes, Croats, and Muslims feared that it would mean Serbian domination again, as was the case under King Alexander and Prince Paul between the world wars in the old Yugoslav monarchy. According to this view, a united Yugoslavia always meant domination by the Serbs; it was...

Constitutions and Human Rights

Constitutions and Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,503 words

...1815 the Russian tsar Alexander I gave the newly created Kingdom of Poland a new constitution. Similarly, in the Austrian and Prussian parts of the partitioned Polish territories, the constitutions were granted by the emperors, and the constitutional rights of the Poles were as illusive as the rights of peoples in the other parts of the Austrian and German empires. The concept of the constitutionalization of rights and freedoms in France was changing as well. The 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen listed as a top priority the protection...

International League for Human Rights

International League for Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,530 words

...more generally to participate in the process and to lobby. The League responded in both ways. Self-Determination Issues Even before receiving its formal consultative status, the League had lobbied aggressively at the General Assembly and Security Council on an issue that was to take up some of its energies until the 1990s, the question of decolonization. Baldwin and the League were very active in issuing information on the first great decolonization issue to come before the United Nations, that of continued Dutch rule of Indonesia, and providing contacts to ...

Chechnya

Chechnya   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,190 words

...intolerance espoused by both the Russian and Chechen sides of the war, there is little expectation that the human rights situation in the North Caucasus will improve in the near future. Human rights defenders in Russia and critics of the Kremlin are constantly under threat. The apparent contract killing of Anna Politkovskaya on 7 October 2006 and the radioactive poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko in November 2006 , irrespective of who may be behind the murders, signaled a dramatic retreat to a dark Stalinist past. The extremist statements of Chechen...

Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,578 words

.... The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Particularly good on Sakharov's scientific career as well as on his political activities. Lourie, Richard . Sakharov: A Biography . Waltham, Mass: Brandeis University Press; Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2002. Robinson, Neil . “ Parliamentary Politics under Gorbachev: Opposition and the Failure of Socialist Pluralism. ” Journal of Communist Studies 9, no. 1 (1993): 91–108. Rubenstein, Joshua , and Alexander Gribanov , eds. The...

Demise of Soviet Communism

Demise of Soviet Communism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,105 words

...protest by the late 1960s. This development was shaped both by the memory of Stalinism and by the peculiarities of Soviet propaganda. On the one hand, the mass repressions of the 1930s had given millions of Soviet citizens a bitter lesson about the human cost of living at the mercy of a regime that denied basic civil rights. Although the post-Stalin leadership had some success in alleviating “material frustrations,” it never came to terms with the horrors of Soviet history: the execution of nearly a million civilians in the Great Terror of 1937 , the...

Max Van Der Stoel

Max Van Der Stoel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,612 words

... not happening if he acted. However, the general impression is that he was indeed effective, and for that reason he received a great deal of overall appreciation. Jorge Zorreguieta Almost at the end of his career, in 2001 , Van der Stoel acceded to a request by the Dutch government and was asked to prevail upon Jorge Zorreguieta, the father of Maxima, the Argentinean bride-to-be of Crown Prince Willem-Alexander, not to attend his daughter's wedding. Zorreguieta had been junior minister of agriculture during the military junta in Argentina ( 1976–1983 )....

Aung San Suu Kyi

Aung San Suu Kyi   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,598 words

...the Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1973 the married couple returned to England for the birth of their first son, Alexander. Their second son, Kim, was born there in 1977 . While in England, Aris commenced postgraduate studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London, and in 1976 was appointed a university faculty member at Oxford. While raising her children, Suu Kyi worked in the Bodleian Library's Oriental Department and began to write and research a biography of her father, published as Aung San in 1984 . The...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,277 words

...the FSB, the internal security service successor to the KGB: for example, the cases of Mikhail Trepashkin, imprisoned after involvement in the parliamentary commission investigating the 1999 apartment bombings that sparked the second Chechen war, and of Igor Sutyagin , an academic researcher charged, like Alexander Nikitin before him, of passing secrets to foreign organizations. Many of these cases also saw intimidation of defense lawyers (a common practice generally, according to law associations). Courts, police, and prosecutors, particularly in the...

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,625 words

...Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Although the American Civil Liberties Union ( ACLU ) was founded in 1920 , its roots extend back to at least 1917 , with the formation of the Civil Liberties Bureau by Roger Baldwin and Crystal Eastman . During this era, fears of war and the threat of communism fueled a growing climate of hostility toward civil liberties in the United States. The notorious Palmer Raids of 1919–1921 , authorized by U.S. Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer , resulted in numerous civil rights violations, including arrests without...

Kenya

Kenya   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,935 words

...response, the government banned the NCCK newspaper, Beyond , and jailed its editor. Nevertheless, the church refused to be cowed. Individual churches, especially the Anglicans and Presbyterians, began speaking out against the violations of human rights and corruption in government. The Anglican bishop of the Eldoret diocese, Reverend Alexander Muge, in particular, emerged as a leading opponent of the government's encroachment on civil liberties and political freedoms. In his sermons, Muge drew the analogy between the government's excesses and the crimes of...

National Endowment for Democracy

National Endowment for Democracy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,326 words

...Despite a setback in Belarus, where the authoritarian president Alexander Lukashenka engaged in widespread electoral fraud to keep himself in office, the NED programs that support NGO efforts to mobilize democratic activism continued unabated. In terms of sheer numbers of programmatic initiatives, the NED has been deeply involved in oil-rich Kazakhstan, where since 2000 some fifteen separate initiatives have been started, including support for the Kazakhstan International Bureau of Human Rights and the Rule of Law, a center for International Private...

History of Human Rights

History of Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
10,677 words

...of the revolutions of 1848 . The abolition of serfdom in Russia, and then in Poland, occurred from the shock of military defeat in the Crimean War that caused the “Czar-Liberator” Alexander II to issue the historic Decree of Emancipation of 1861 freeing an estimated 50 million human beings from serfdom. The abolition of feudalism in Japan happened shortly thereafter following the Tokugawa collapse, similarly bringing dramatic changes to the countryside and attracting large numbers of peasants, merchants, and intellectuals to the emerging Popular...

Elie Wiesel

Elie Wiesel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,932 words

..., chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, announced that Wiesel would receive the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize. The committee's resolution commended Wiesel as “a messenger to mankind; his message is one of peace, atonement and human dignity…  . The message is in the form of a testimony, repeated and deepened through the works of a great author.” The Nobel Prize and Its Impact Wiesel received the Nobel Peace Prize in ceremonies held at Oslo University's Aula Festival Hall on 10 December 1986 . When Aarvik presented the award, he emphasized the significance of...

Refugees

Refugees   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,763 words

...or be the target of the discriminatory application of a law. In those instances, even if the law on its face appears to be a law of general applicability, those who are singled out by it could (and should) be considered as refugees. What is important, then, is that the law be in conformity with human rights standards. Although the Convention does not specify any connection between the state and the sources of persecution feared by refugees, one of the great controversies is whether persecution must come at the hands of state actors. The dominant...

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,721 words

...and interference. During the colonial period, Afghanistan was not subjugated but maintained as a buffer state in theGreat Game” between Russia and the British Empire. Its current borders were delineated in the late nineteenth century without much Afghan involvement. The contested Durand Line, the 1,610-mile border between Afghanistan and Pakistan that cuts through the Pashtun tribal belt and divides the Pashtun tribal people between Pakistan and Afghanistan, remains a source of tension between both countries. Afghanistan joined the United Nations in 1946 ...

Nanjing Massacre

Nanjing Massacre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,648 words

...a minister of the Disciples of Christ who then worked as a business manager for the University Hospital, also stayed. The five American and British correspondents were allowed to leave Nanjing soon after the Japanese occupied the city. Steele, Durdin, and Menken left for Shanghai on 15 December 1937 on the USS Oahu , and Smith departed on the same day on the HMS Ladybird . McDaniel went to Shanghai the following day on the Japanese destroyer Tsuga . All the five journalists cabled massacre stories to newspapers in the United States and Great Britain soon...

United States

United States   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
22,172 words

...and Chair of the UN Commission on Human Rights Eleanor Roosevelt to make a “personal appeal” to Walter White, the Association's executive secretary, to withdraw the petition from the UN (Record Group 84). The second method was full-scale bureaucratic warfare within the MINDIS subcommittee, which had, despite the U.S. State Department's best efforts, dismissed the American definition of minority and, thus, had jurisdiction in this case. The Soviet delegate, Alexander Borisov, immediately began to maneuver to have the NAACP's petition put on the agenda, where...

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