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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...national security with the Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 and 1918 , respectively. During the New Era of the 1920 s, the administrative state was further expanded with the enactment of Prohibition, as well as the establishment of new regulatory agencies. These agencies, such as the Civil Aeronautics Board for air travel and the Federal Communications Commission for radio, helped foster the grow of these industries. The collapse of the economy into the Great Depression in 1929 posed a severe test for this still relatively light form of government...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...Federal In Federalist No. 30 ( 1787 ), Alexander Hamilton asserted, “Money is, with propriety, considered as the vital principle of the body politic; as that which sustains its life and motion and enables it to perform its most essential functions.” Over the next two centuries and beyond, the budget was a battleground for political actors holding different views about the federal government’s scope, who should bear its costs, and whether to defray these costs to the future through operation of a deficit. Until the 1920 s budgeting was predominantly a...

Ancient Near Eastern Law

Ancient Near Eastern Law  

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Overview Page
The ancient Near East is what historians call the area now known as the Middle East before its conquest by Alexander the Great. Its recorded history covers some three thousand ...
Hamilton, Alexander

Hamilton, Alexander   Reference library

Paul G. E. Clemens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
826 words

...of New York . After the election, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. The two met at Weehawken , New Jersey , on 11 July 1804 . Burr fatally shot Hamilton , who died the next day. Despite contemporary suspicions of his motives, Alexander Hamilton played a monumental role in establishing the new nation, including his service as Washington ’s advisor and confidant, his brilliant collaborative defense of the Constitution in The Federalist , his shaping of the first national financial system, and his leadership of the Federalist Party. His...

Jay, John

Jay, John   Reference library

Jerald A. Combs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
304 words

...foreign affairs for the next six years. Although not a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 , he supported its efforts by helping Alexander Hamilton and James Madison write the Federalist Papers to defend the new Constitu-tion. President George Washington rewarded Jay ’s efforts by appointing him the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1794 , Washington sent Jay to London to settle issues that threatened to drag the United States into war against Britain on the side of revolutionary France . The controversial...

Executive Power

Executive Power   Reference library

Benjamin Kleinerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,055 words

... The Federalist Papers , Alexander Hamilton writes, “Energy in the executive is a leading character in the definition of good government.” That the Federalists so openly defended a powerful executive power within the constitutional order, however, had been, to a certain degree, lost to history. Once Thomas Jefferson assumed the presidency from John Adams , he ushered in a theory of the constitutional order that was, at least ostensibly, much more centered on Congress. The Hamiltonian theory of the presidency had looked to the executive not just as the...

Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v. Madison   Reference library

Paul G. E. Clemens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
511 words

...; Constitution ; Federal Government, Judicial Branch ; Federalist Papers ; Federalist Party ; Hamilton, Alexander ; Jefferson, Thomas ; Judicial Review ; Judiciary Act of 1789 ; Jurisprudence ; Madison, James ; Marshall, John ; and Supreme Court, U.S . ] Bibliography Clinton, Robert L. Marbury v. Madison and Judicial Review . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1968. Hobson, Charles F. The Great Chief Justice: John Marshall and the Rule of Law . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996. Paul G. E....

Madison, James

Madison, James   Reference library

J. C. A. Stagg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
985 words

...the Continental Congress, Madison joined the effort to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitutional structure. Madison drafted the “ Virginia Plan,” which defined the agenda for the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and ultimately became, with modifications, the blueprint for the federal Constitution. Playing an equally prominent role in the ratification process, Madison collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on the Federalist Papers , writing twenty-nine of the eighty-five essays; led the Federalist forces in the ...

Constitutional Convention of 1787

Constitutional Convention of 1787   Reference library

John P. Kaminski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
598 words

...many powers from the states to the central government. Abandoning the forbidding amendment procedure of the Articles of Confederation, the document provided that adoption by nine state conventions would establish the Constitution among the ratifying states. After almost a year of intense public debate, eleven states ratified the new Constitution. [ see also Articles of Confederation ; Constitution ; Franklin, Benjamin ; Hamilton, Alexander ; Madison, James ; and Washington, George . ] Bibliography Farrand, Max, ed. The Records of the Federal...

TREASURY DEPARTMENT

TREASURY DEPARTMENT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...DEPARTMENT Alexander Hamilton , the first secretary of the treasury, said that most of the important measures of the government are connected with the Treasury Department. That was as true at the beginning of the twenty-first century as it was in Hamilton ’s time. From its Revolutionary War beginnings to the present, the department has played a key role in the nation’s development. The secretary of the Treasury is the president’s senior economic adviser and supervises the operation of an executive department that has served the nation with...

Monetary Policy

Monetary Policy   Reference library

John A. James

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,612 words

...two major components, the coining of currency and the creation of a banking system, U.S. monetary policy is as old as the national government itself. Currency.  Following Alexander Hamilton ’s recommendations, the Coinage Act of 1792 established the dollar as the official unit of account and established a bimetallic stan-dard that defined the dollar in relation to gold and silver. The silver dollar contained fifteen times as much silver as the gold in the gold dollar. Originally the 15 to 1 ratio was close to the prevailing market value, but as...

Tariffs

Tariffs   Reference library

Paul P. Abrahams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,146 words

...(1) to protect the domestic economy and specific economic sectors from foreign competition and (2) to raise government revenues. Even before the founding of the United States , British attempts to regulate imperial trade through tariffs and taxes precipitated resistance in the American colonies. Hence, the Constitution of 1789 gave the new federal government control of overseas commerce, and Congress set low tariff rates solely to raise revenue to cover public expenses and obligations. The first secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton , proposed...

REGULATION

REGULATION  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...having to do with forestry and other environmental concerns. They represented a nonpartisan consensus that people and the environment must be protected from the excesses of the unfettered market. [ See also Antitrust Legislation and Law ; Carter, Jimmy ; Contract, Law of ; Environmentalism ; Environmental Protection Agency ; Federal Communications Commission ; Federal Reserve System ; Great Society ; Hamilton, Alexander ; Interstate Commerce Act ; Monetary Policy ; National Labor Relations Act ; New Deal ; Nixon, Richard M. ; Progressive...

Neoconservatism

Neoconservatism   Reference library

John Ehrman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,200 words

...the intellectual level of Commentary , now edited by Norman Podhoretz ’s son John , has declined and that the neoconservatives show little inclination to consider what lessons to draw from their experiences. A new, high-quality journal, National Affairs , began publication in 2009 , but it remains to be seen whether it will be able to match the prestige of Public Interest in an age of infinite competing voices on the Internet and cable television. [ See also Conservatism ; Democratic Party ; and Liberalism . ] Bibliography Bloom, Alexander. ...

Washington, George

Washington, George   Reference library

Dorothy Twohig

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,149 words

...the office with considerable misgivings, George Washington was elected president of the United States in February 1789 and reelected in 1792 . In office, Washington used his extraordinary ad-ministrative abilities to construct an efficient civil service, and under his leadership, the fiscal policies of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton brought financial stability to the new nation. Asserting the power of the new federal government, he mobilized and personally led a militia force of tax-resisting frontiersmen during 1794 against the ...

Political Campaigning

Political Campaigning   Reference library

Richard Jensen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,443 words

...the victory was sweet. In an era when many politicians had military experience, structuring the parties along a militaristic chain of command seemed logical enough. Between the days of Alexander Hamilton and his Federalist party in the 1790 s and Mark Hanna and his Republicans in the 1890 s, there was no national boss. Presidential candidates and their top aides spent a great deal of time organizing their own temporary national infrastructure, which was set up outside the state and national committees. County committees did the real work for the...

STATE DEPARTMENT

STATE DEPARTMENT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...flashpoint. Whereas the first secretary of state, Thomas Jefferson , favored the French, the Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton advocated a pro-British neutrality. Hamilton ’s triumph in this dispute helped give rise to the first party system, while also anticipating the department’s later struggles to control foreign policy. As revolutionary passions faded, the department evolved into something of an incubator for presidents. Three successive secretaries of states— James Madison , James Monroe , and John Quincy Adams —rose to the presidency. Whereas ...

Democratic Party

Democratic Party   Reference library

Jean Harvey Baker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,891 words

...the beginning of the Democratic Party, but its intellectual heri-tage can be traced to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison , both of whom shunned parties even as they shaped the policies and sensibility of the so-called Democratic-Republican political movement during the 1790 s. Opposing the centralizing programs of the secretary of the treasury Alexander Hamilton , who urged a revenue system based on tariffs, excise taxes, a federal bank, and funding of the national debt, Jefferson and Madison established enduring party themes. Champions of the...

Watergate

Watergate   Reference library

Gary W. Reichard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,350 words

...weeks, the president yielded to pressures for a neutral investigator to conduct a nonpolitical inquiry, permitting the Justice Department to appoint the Harvard law professor Archibald Cox as special prosecutor. Cox launched his investigation just as the Senate committee’s hearing got under way in midMay. The “Watergate hearings,” televised over fifty-three days extending into November, attracted enormous public and media attention. A major breakthrough in the Senate investigation occurred on 16 July 1973 , when White House assistant Alexander...

Terrorist Detention Policy

Terrorist Detention Policy   Reference library

Nathan Alexander Sales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,551 words

...held for having violated the laws of war, but simply to prevent them from returning to the battlefield. Mechanisms for Reviewing Detentions.   As of this writing, the principal mechanism by which suspected terrorists may obtain review of the government’s decision to detain them is to petition a federal court for a writ of habeas corpus. (Thegreat writ” of habeas corpus is an ancient device by which prisoners may challenge their detentions.) The story of how detainees gained the right to habeas review is as follows. Initially, the judiciary played a...

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