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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...national security with the Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 and 1918 , respectively. During the New Era of the 1920 s, the administrative state was further expanded with the enactment of Prohibition, as well as the establishment of new regulatory agencies. These agencies, such as the Civil Aeronautics Board for air travel and the Federal Communications Commission for radio, helped foster the grow of these industries. The collapse of the economy into the Great Depression in 1929 posed a severe test for this still relatively light form of government...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...Federal In Federalist No. 30 ( 1787 ), Alexander Hamilton asserted, “Money is, with propriety, considered as the vital principle of the body politic; as that which sustains its life and motion and enables it to perform its most essential functions.” Over the next two centuries and beyond, the budget was a battleground for political actors holding different views about the federal government’s scope, who should bear its costs, and whether to defray these costs to the future through operation of a deficit. Until the 1920 s budgeting was predominantly a...

Tiraquellus, Andreas (André Tiraqueau)

Tiraquellus, Andreas (André Tiraqueau) (1488–1558)   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
506 words

... (critical abstract) for Alexander ab Alexandro's ( 1461–1525 ) famous Dies geniales: Semestria in genialum dierum libri VI ( 1586 ). He developed his knowledge of marriage law into another great strength, beginning by editing Francesco Barbaros's De re uxoria (On marital law) in 1513 and, in the same year, offering his famous commentary on the section of the Coutume of Poitou dealing with marriage law: De legibus connubialibus et jure maritali (published 1513–1515 and often thereafter). The work itself went well beyond the scope of a commentary,...

Azo

Azo (d. 1220/1229)   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
571 words

...since by the fifteenth century the apparatuses of Accursius had long since taken the field and been accepted as the Glossa ordinaria . Somewhat by accident, however, Azo,s lectures on the Codex , taken down and fleshed out by his student Alexander de Sancto Aegidio , did appear in print. Azo also wrote a commentary to the Digest title De regulis iuris as well as a book of distinctions, neither of them printed. He put together a collection of brocardica (from the medieval Latin broccus , “with protruding teeth”—this is what the Bolognese law...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
5,901 words
Illustration(s):
1

...his grandson to the throne as Robert II (r. 1371–1390 ). Reconstruction. The fourteenth century was a period of reconstruction as well as war with England. Shortly after Bannockburn, a parliament in November 1314 declared that all who did not come into the king's peace would be forfeited. Bruce stressed the continuity of his reign from that of Alexander III. His aim was conservative consolidation, but the need for reconstruction and pacification of the country did lead to changes. While Bruce used Parliament for the great business of the realm such as...

Samaria Papyri

Samaria Papyri   Reference library

Mary Joan Winn Leith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
2,638 words

...from the Wadi Daliyeh cave to Amman, Jordan, on the eve of the 1967 war. According to the scenario proposed by Frank Cross ( Cross, 1974 ), the cave contained the remains of patrician Samarian families who fled their homes in 331 b.c.e. to escape Alexander the Great’s reprisals after Samaria rebelled and, according to Curtius ( Hist. Alex. IV, 8, 9–10), burned alive Andromachus, Alexander’s prefect in Syria. Presumably, the refugee families were discovered and then asphyxiated when pursuers built a fire at the entrance to the cave. From the...

Serjeants at Law

Serjeants at Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,806 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Notes . London, 1840. A report of Re The Serjeants at Law (1839) in the Privy Council. Pulling, Alexander . The Order of the Coif . London: Clowes & Sons, 1884. Reprinted London: Clowes & Sons, 1897; Buffalo: W. S. Hein, 1975. Written by one of the last serjeants, this is a pious but unscholarly account of the order's history. Woolrych, Humphry W. Lives of Eminent Serjeants at Law of the English Bar . 2 vols. London: W. H. Allen, 1869. A pioneering work which has been effectively superseded by the lives in the, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography....

Byzantine Empire, Later

Byzantine Empire, Later   Reference library

John Anthony McGuckin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,937 words

...today to denote the study of the Roman Empire of the east in the period after the end of Late Antiquity up to the late Middle Ages ( Treadgold, 1997 ) . It takes its point of reference from the fact that the first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great (who was emperor from 306 to 337 ) removed his imperial capital from Rome to the newly built city of Constantinople on the shores of the Bosphorus, site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. The Dynamic Byzantine Adoption of Biblical Paradigms. The Byzantines saw themselves as the Romaioi :...

Polynesia

Polynesia   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
988 words
Illustration(s):
1

...democratic participation, but this will not bring significant changes. All other countries in the region following British common law were colonies. The 1840 Treaty of Waitangi granted British sovereignty over New Zealand where, unlike in other Polynesian countries and territories, the indigenous Maori population is a minority. This has affected legal developments, although Maori concerns did not have great impact until the latter part of the twentieth century. The Waitangi Tribunal, established in 1975 with power to make recommendations relating to treaty...

Baltic Nations

Baltic Nations   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,667 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the reign of Queen Christina ( r. 1644–1654 ), the position of the aristocracy was strengthened in the whole empire, and the knightage of Livonia organized itself similarly to the one in Estland. The reduction of estates during the rule of Charles XI ( r. 1661–1697 ) created animosity toward Swedish rule. Sweden did not manage to fulfill the plan of abolishing serfdom in the Baltic provinces. Meanwhile, the Great Northern War began in 1700 . The Duchy of Courland (1562–1795). By a treaty of 1561 between Sigismund II Augustus and the last master of the...

Constitution of the United States

Constitution of the United States   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
16,028 words
Illustration(s):
4

...must interpret the Constitution, but the American constitutional system gives special weight to the interpretations set forth by federal courts, especially the U.S. Supreme Court. During the ratification controversy of 1787–1788 , those who opposed the Constitution insisted that a system of federal courts was either unnecessary, because it would duplicate the systems of state courts already in place, or dangerous, because it would monopolize the business of adjudication and would erode the diversity of laws among the several states. Alexander Hamilton ...

Insolvency

Insolvency   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,301 words

...Court System) of 1793 . In Great Britain, there existed until 1542 absolutely no insolvency law. It was only with the legislation of the sixteenth century that, as Harry Rajak at the University of Sussex put it, “a cornerstone in the modern insolvency law regimen [was built], namely the possibility of seizing the bankrupt's property, the swift sale of this property and the proportional distribution among creditors of the proceeds from that sale.” French insolvency law during the Middle Ages operated in its fundamentals under the influence of Italian...

Legal Process

Legal Process   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,632 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The Supreme Court at the Bar of Politics . Indiannapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962. Bickel, Alexander M. , and Harry H. Wellington . “ Legislative Purpose and the Judicial Process: The Lincoln Mills Case. ” Harvard Law Review 71 (1957): 1–39. Burt, Robert . Taking Care of Strangers: The Rule of Law in Doctor-Patient Relations . New York: Free Press, 1979. Calabresi, Guido . A Common Law for the Age of Statutes . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. Cover, Robert , and Alexander Aleinikoff . “ Dialectical Federalism: Habeas Corpus and the...

Ancient Greek Law

Ancient Greek Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
28,725 words
Illustration(s):
6

...The encounter of local traditions with practices and ideas that the Greco-Macedonian immigrants imported into the provinces of the Achaemenid Empire conquered by Alexander the Great could surely not help but act upon the evolution of the law. The immigrants’ “common law” stood facing the legal traditions of the conquered populations, which were maintained and protected by the state. Greek traditions henceforth acted in a space larger than the narrow framework of the classical Greek state, polis, or ethnos ; this necessarily entailed changes in the...

Legislation

Legislation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
7,673 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 335. The Hellenistic States. The legislative and public decision-making process that developed in classical Athens soon enjoyed high esteem throughout Greece, as seen in the example of Thebes. Even Alexander the Great, who favored oligarchy, established democracy in the Greek cities he freed from the Persians. The legislative process in these cities, however, was different from that of the classical democracy in two respects. First, wealthy citizens could gain disproportionate political influence through philanthropy and personal contacts with the...

State Sovereignty

State Sovereignty   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,616 words

...and the Sovereign State: The Evolution and Application of the Concept of Sovereignty . University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. A modern reassessment of the concept of sovereignty and its place in the modern world. Hobbes, Thomas . Leviathan . New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1965. First published 1651. Shinoda, Hideaki . Re-Examining Sovereignty: From Classical Theory to the Global Age . New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. A probing analysis of the future of the “sovereign” nation-state. federalism and the constitution Hamilton, Alexander , ...

Citizenship

Citizenship   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,989 words
Illustration(s):
1

...citizens at the central core is surrounded by those with more attenuated ties to the polity, weaker claims on it, and more limited rights against it. The dominant normative vision of citizenship can be inferred from, among other things, the magnitude and nature of the gap between the rights and duties of citizens and of those in the outer circles. According to a 1973 statement by Alexander Bickel , American citizenship “is at best a simple idea for a simple government.” By this, Bickel meant that the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
10,135 words
Illustration(s):
3

...on the extent of judicial bribery and corruption in Russia, but there is ample evidence of public opinion, including Peter I, Catherine II , Alexander I , and Nicholas I , being profoundly distrustful of judges and lawyers. By the third quarter of the nineteenth century legal professionalization and legal values were beginning to leave their imprint within the state administration and without. Many observers believed that these were among the factors that contributed to the great nineteenth-century reforms of Russian law, the emancipation of the serfs in...

Logography

Logography   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,663 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ten we may add the name of Apollodorus , who is thought to have composed as many as nine of the speeches that have been attributed to Demosthenes; these were written both for other litigants and for himself to deliver. The latest speeches that survive today were delivered in 322 b.c.e. , just after the death of Alexander the Great, when Athens hoped to regain its independence. These hopes were soon crushed, and of the logographers known to us by name, only Dinarchus survived and continued to write speeches after this date. However, the practice of...

Roman Law

Roman Law   Reference library

Robert M. Frakes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,925 words

...of subgovernor, and this official was given the power to conduct trials (the cognitio extra ordinem ) and even the right to execute ( ius gladii ). This is the historical context for the life of Christ and the Apostles. Although Rome enjoys favorable press in the Deuterocanonical books of the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament) because of its support of the Maccabees, signs of the influence of Roman law do not appear until the New Testament. While a great deal of the society portrayed in the Gospels is that of the village (at least until Jesus’s entry in...

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