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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Aleksandriya

Aleksandriya (Ukraine)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Aleksandriya , Ukraine ( Usovka ) Founded in 1754 , but renamed in 1784 after Alexander , grandson of Catherine II the Great and later Emperor of Russia as Alexander I , when it became a...

Iskandar

Iskandar (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Iskandar , Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Named after Alexander III the Great who campaigned in the region in 329–328 bc...

Chārīkār

Chārīkār (Afghanistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Chārīkār , Afghanistan ( Alexandria-under-the Caucasus, Kapisa/Kapishi ) Founded in 328 bc by, and named after, Alexander III the Great . The Hindu Kush in Afghanistan was known as the Indian...

Ay Khanom

Ay Khanom (Afghanistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Ay Khanom , Afghanistan Ruins. The settlement may have been founded in 327 bc by Alexander III the Great as Alexandria-on-the-Oxus (now the Amu Darya River). Its present name means ‘Lady of the Moon’ from the Uzbek oy ‘moon’ and xonim ...

Iskenderun

Iskenderun (Turkey)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Iskenderun , Turkey ( Alexandretta ) Founded at or near the site of Alexander III the Great ’s victory over Darius III , King of Persia ( 336–330 bc ), at Alexandria ad Issum in 333 bc . Both the previous and present names honour Alexander , Iskender being the Turkish for Alexander. At the end of the First World War it became the capital of the sancak ‘territorial division’ of Alexandretta, a French mandate until 1939 . It was then ceded to Turkey, although Syrian maps still show the ‘annexed province’ as part of Syria. See hatay...

Campaspe

Campaspe (Victoria/Australia)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Campaspe , Victoria/Australia A river discovered in 1836 by Sir Thomas Mitchell ( 1792–1855 ), surveyor-general of New South Wales ( 1828–55 ), who named it after the favourite mistress of Alexander III the Great . There is another river with this name in...

Marghilan

Marghilan (Uzbekistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Marghilan ( Margilon ) , Uzbekistan ( Marginan ) According to legend, when Alexander III the Great passed through in c. 328 bc he was given murgh ‘chicken’ and nan ‘bread’; it is said that the name derives from...

Persepolis

Persepolis (Iran)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Persepolis , Iran ( Parsa ) Ruins now called Takht-e Jamshīd ‘Throne of Jamshīd’, but capital of the Persian Empire from the reign of Darius I the Great , King of Persia ( 522–486 bc ) until it was partially destroyed by Alexander III the Great in 330 bc . The name means ‘City of Persians’ or ‘Persian Town’ from the Greek Persēs ‘Persian’ and polis...

Hindu Kush

Hindu Kush (Afghanistan–Pakistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Hindu Kush , Afghanistan–Pakistan A huge mountain system known to Alexander III the Great as the ‘ Caucasus ’. However, the name is said to represent Hendu Kosh ‘Hindu Killer’ or ‘Killer of Indians’ because, according to the great 14th-century Arab traveller, Ibn Battutah , so many slaves died from severe cold while attempting to cross...

Ghazni

Ghazni (Afghanistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Ghazni , Afghanistan ( Alexandria (of the Paropanisades), Ghazna ) Named originally after Alexander III the Great c. 330 bc , the present name comes from the Dari (the dialect of Persian spoken in Afghanistan) ganj ‘treasure’. Refounded in the 9th century by Yakub, the Emir of Sistan, it was the capital of the huge Ghaznavid Empire between 977 and 1140...

Termiz

Termiz (Uzbekistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Termiz , Uzbekistan One of the hottest places in the country, the name comes from the Greek thermos ‘hot’ to give a ‘Hot (Place)’, possibly coined by the troops of Alexander III the Great as they campaigned in the region in the 4th century bc...

Ptolemaïda

Ptolemaïda (Greece)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Ptolemaïda , Greece ( Kayla, Kaileria ) During the Ottoman Turkish occupation it was known as Kayla and this name was retained in the Greek form of Kaileria until 1927 when it was given its present name in honour of Ptolemy I Soter ( c. 367– c. 283 bc ), one of Alexander III the Great ’s Macedonian generals and ruler of Egypt ( 323–285 bc...

Adana

Adana (Turkey)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Adana , Turkey A very old city believed to take its name from a Phoenician word adan ‘delight’. Having been conquered by Alexander III the Great in 335 bc , it later fell under Arab and Turkmen rule before being taken by the Ottoman Turks in 1516...

Jhelum

Jhelum (Pakistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...to be the Hydaspes mentioned by Alexander III the Great and which he reached in 326 bc , and a city originally called Alexandria Bucephalus, or more commonly Bucephala, to commemorate the noble horse that carried Alexander III for seventeen years and died here. The ancient city lay on the east bank of the river, whereas the present city lies on the west bank. The present name has attracted several theories as to its meaning. Perhaps the most widely accepted is that it is derived from jal ‘pure water’ and ham ‘snow’, a reference to the river which...

Gordion

Gordion (Turkey)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...legend, migrated here in a wooden cart, thus fulfilling the oracle’s prophesy and becoming king. The yoke of his cart was tied to the shaft by a most complicated knot. The legend claims that it could only be undone by the future conqueror of Asia. Alexander III the Great , keen to be just that, was shown the cart on his arrival in the town, the key road-junction in central Anatolia, in 333 bc . Instead, apparently, of trying to untie the knot, Alexander cut through it with his sword. Thus, ‘to cut the Gordian knot’ is to solve a difficult problem with...

İznik

İznik (Turkey)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Nicaea ) Founded in the 4th century bc and named Antigonia after Antigonus I the One-Eyed ( c. 382–301 bc ), one of Alexander III the Great ’s generals and King of Macedonia ( 306–301 bc ); then c. 300 bc it was renamed Nicaea after the deceased wife of Lysimachus ( c. 360–281 bc ), another of Alexander’s generals and King of Thrace ( 306–281 bc ) and also King of Macedonia. It was captured by the first sultan of the Ottoman Turks, Orhan Gazi, in 1331 . He made it his capital and changed its name to İznik from the Greek eis Nikian ‘to...

Jarash

Jarash (Jordan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...on the Chrysorhoas, Gerasa ) Founded by soldiers of Alexander III the Great c. 332 bc , the present name is derived from the previous names. The original name was changed to Antioch on the Chrysorhoas ‘Antioch on the Golden River’, probably by the Seleucid king Antiochus IV ( r.175–164 bc ), who developed the small village into a great town. The ‘Golden River’ was a rather grand title for the small stream that divides the eastern and western parts of the city. The Romans Hellenized Garshu to Gerasa and the present Arabic version of the name,...

Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki (Greece)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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... ( Therma, Thessalonica, Salonika ) Founded in 315 bc by Kassandros/Cassander ( 358–297 bc ), the husband of Thessalonikë, who was the sister of Alexander III the Great . Her name meant ‘Victory in Thessaly’ from Thessalía ( see thessaly ) and nikë ‘victory’. It was the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia and in 1430–1912 was ruled by the Ottoman Turks. Under Ottoman Turkish rule the city was known by the Turkish name of Selânik . The alternative name, Salonika or Salonica, was commonly used in Western Europe until 1937 when...

Uch

Uch (Punjab/Pakistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Uch , Punjab/Pakistan ( Alexandria at the Confluence, Iskandera/Eskanderiya ) Founded in 325 bc by Alexander III the Great near the confluence of the Sutlej and Jhelum (then the Hydaspes) Rivers. According to local tradition, the name was changed to Iskandera or Eskanderiya when the Muslims first arrived in the 8th century . The present name means a ‘High Place’. It is also sometimes spelt...

Herāt

Herāt (Afghanistan)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

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...Herāt , Afghanistan ( Herovia/Hera, Alexandria Areion ) Founded on the ancient site of Herovia, it was rebuilt and renamed ‘Alexandria of the Arians’ by Alexander III the Great in 330 bc . The region was called Aria by the Greeks. The city was captured by Arabs in 660 and, after being fought over by Persians and Afghans, it became part of Afghanistan in 1863 . It is now named after the river on which it lies, the Harīrūd which in Old Persian was Harīv...

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