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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323 bc)   Quick reference

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... the Great ( 356–323 bc ) King of Macedonia ( 336–323 bc ), considered the greatest conqueror of classical times. Son of Philip II of Macedonia and tutored by Aristotle , Alexander rapidly consolidated Macedonian power in Greece. In 334 bc he began his destruction of the vast Achaemenid Persian Empire, conquering w Asia Minor and storming Tyre in 332 bc . He subdued Egypt and occupied Babylon, marching n in 330 bc to Media, and then conquering central Asia in 328 bc . In 327 bc Alexander invaded India but the threat of mutiny...

Susa

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...Ancient city in sw Iran, capital of the Elamites. It became an important centre under the Achaemenid Kings of Persia, containing a palace of Darius I . After the conquests of Alexander the Great , it became the capital of a small Greek state. Among archaeological finds at Susa was the stele (stone slab) of Hammurabi , inscribed with his code of...

Seleucids

Seleucids   Quick reference

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...Hellenistic dynastic empire founded by Seleucus I, a former general of Alexander the Great , between 306 and 281 bc . Centred on Syria, it included most of the Asian provinces of Alexander's empire, extending from the e Mediterranean to India. War with the Ptolemies of Egypt and, later, the Romans, steadily reduced its territory. In 63 bc its depleted territory became the Roman province of...

Ptolemy I

Ptolemy I (c.367–c.283 bc)   Quick reference

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...I ( c. 367–c.283 bc ) ( Ptolemy Soter ) King of ancient Egypt, first ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty. He was a leading Macedonian general of Alexander the Great , upon whose death in 323 bc Ptolemy received Egypt in the division of Alexander's empire. He assumed the title of king in 305 bc . He made Alexandria his capital where he created the famous library. He abdicated in 284 bc in favour of his son, Ptolemy II...

Paul I

Paul I (1754–1801)   Quick reference

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...I ( 1754–1801 ) Emperor of Russia ( 1796–1801 ), son of Catherine II (the Great) . He re-established the principle of hereditary succession and instituted repressive measures to protect Russia from the influence of the French Revolution. Paul's erratic conduct and his hostility towards his son, Alexander, led to his murder by nobles and military...

Seleucus

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...Name of two kings of Syria. Seleucus I ( c .355–281 bc ) was a trusted general of Alexander the Great and founder of the Seleucid dynasty. By 281 bc he secured control of Babylonia, Syria, and all of Asia Minor. He appeared to be on the brink of restoring the whole of Alexander's empire under his rule when he was murdered. Seleucus II ( r.247–226 bc ) spent his reign fighting Ptolemy III of Egypt and Antiochus Hierax, his brother and rival, losing territory to...

Darius III

Darius III (c.380–330 bc)   Quick reference

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...III ( c. 380–330 bc ) King of Persia ( 336–330 bc ). He underestimated Alexander the Great , and brought about the demise of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Defeated at Issus ( 333 bc ) and Gaugamela ( 331 bc ), he fled to Ecbatana and then to Bactria, where he was...

Antigonus I

Antigonus I (382?–301 bc)   Quick reference

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...I ( the One-eyed Antigonus I ) ( 382?–301 bc ) General of Alexander the Great . He became governor of Phrygia ( 333 bc ) and defeated challengers to gain control of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Asia Minor. In 306 bc he defeated his former ally, Ptolemy I, at Salamis. He was killed at...

Ephesus

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... ( Efes ) Ancient Ionian city of w Asia Minor (modern Turkey). A prosperous port under the Greeks and Romans, it was a centre of the cult of Artemis (Diana). The Temple of Artemis was the largest Greek temple ever built and was one of the Seven Wonders of the World . Ephesus was captured by Croesus ( c .550 bc ), Cyrus the Great ( c .546 bc ) and by Alexander the Great ( 334 bc ), falling eventually into Roman control ( 133 bc ). Today, it is one of the world's principal archaeological...

Thebes

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...City-state of ancient Greece, the dominant power in Boeotia. It allied with Persia during the Persian Wars , and during the 5th century bc was continually in conflict with Athens. It reached the peak of its power under Epaminondas in the 4th century bc defeating the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 bc and invading the Peloponnese. In 336 bc the city was largely destroyed after a rising against Alexander the Great...

Pharos

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...Island off the coast of n Egypt, in the Mediterranean, connected to the mainland by a causeway built by Alexander the Great . in c .280 bc Ptolemy II completed a lighthouse that was one of the Seven Wonders of the World . According to writers of the time, it was c .135m (450ft) tall, and its light could be seen 65km (40mi) away. In 1346 it was destroted by an earthquake. Pharos is now part of the city of Alexandria...

Phoenicia

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...founded colonies in Spain and North Africa, notably Carthage . In 332 bc Alexander the Great captured Tyre and subsumed Phoenicia into the Hellenistic...

Samarkand

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...City in the fertile Zeravshan valley, se Uzbekistan. One of the oldest cities in Asia, it was conquered by Alexander the Great in 329 bc . A vital trading centre on the Silk Road , it flourished in the 8th century as part of the Umayyad Empire. Samarkand was destroyed in 1220 by Genghis Khan , but became ( 1370 ) capital of the Mongol empire of Tamerlane . Ruled by the Uzbeks from the 16th century, it was captured by Russia in 1868 , though it remained a centre of Muslim culture. Products: cotton, silk, leather goods, wine, tea, carpets,...

Egypt, ancient

Egypt, ancient   Quick reference

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...under Ramses II drained Egypt, and later weak rulers led to the decline of the New Kingdom. The 21st to 25th dynasties ( Third Intermediate Period ) culminated in Assyrian domination. The Persians ruled from 525 until 404 bc when the Egyptians revolted, and the last native dynasties appeared. In 332 bc Egypt fell to the armies of Alexander the Great , who moved the capital to Alexandria . After Alexander 's death, his general became ruler of Egypt, as Ptolemy I . The Ptolemies maintained a powerful empire for three centuries until Ptolemy XII ...

Macedon

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...The Macedonian King Alexander I ( d.420 bc ) initiated a process of Hellenization. In 348 bc Philip II founded Thessaloníki. In 338 bc he became King of Greece. His son, Alexander the Great , built a world empire, but this rapidly fragmented after his death ( 323 bc ). The Romans eventually defeated Macedon in the Macedonian Wars, and the empire shrank to Macedonia proper. In 146 bc Thessaloníki became capital of the first Roman province. In ad 395 , Macedonia became part of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Slavs settled in the 6th...

Asia Minor

Asia Minor   Quick reference

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... and the Persian Wars followed. Alexander the Great 's empire included this region, although it split into several states after his death. The Romans unified the area in the 2nd century ad . By the 6th century it had become part of the Byzantine empire. In the 13th-15th centuries it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and remained part of the Ottoman Empire until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923...

Turkistan

Turkistan   Quick reference

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...of the republics of Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , Tajikistan , Kyrgyzstan , and s Kazakhstan . It mainly comprises the deserts of Kyzyl Kum and Kara Kum. Eastern (Chinese) Turkistan comprises the Chinese region of Xinjiang and includes the Tian Shan mountains. Southern Turkistan consisted of part of n Afghanistan. For nearly two centuries, Turkistan was the geographical bridge for trade between East and West. The first imperial power to control the region was Persia (Iran) in 500 bc . In c .330 bc Alexander the Great defeated the...

Tajikistan

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...dry in the lower valleys, and winters are long and bitterly cold in the mountains. Much of the country is arid, but the SE has heavy snowfalls. History The ancestors of the people of Tajikistan were Persians who had settled in the area about 2,500 years ago. Macedonian Greeks led by Alexander the Great conquered the region in 331 bc . From 323 bc the area was split into several independent states. Arab armies conquered the area in the mid-7th century and introduced Islam, which remains the chief religion today. In the 9th century it fell to the Iranian...

Lebanon

Lebanon   Quick reference

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...the city of Tyre and established what became known as Phoenicia . Invaders from c. 800 bc included Egyptians, Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians. Alexander the Great seized the area in 332 bc and the Romans in 64 bc . Christianity was introduced in ad 325 , and in 395 the area became part of the Byzantine Empire. Muslim Arabs occupied the area in the 7th century; they converted many people to Islam, but Christian Maronites still predominated. European Crusaders arrived in Lebanon in about 1100 , and the area became a...

Greece

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... the Greeks began to colonize the Mediterranean, creating wealth through trade. Powerful city-states emerged, such as Sparta and Athens, in which Solon established the first democracy (5th century bc ). The revolt of the Ionians started the Persian Wars (499-479 bc ). See Greece, ancient . The city-state of Athens reached its peak in the 461-431 bc but Corinth and Thebes gained control after Athens' defeat in the Peloponnesian War ( 431-404 bc ). In 338 bc Macedon , led by Philip II , became the dominant power. His son, Alexander the Great ,...

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