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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

paradeisos

paradeisos   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Cyrus , describes the animals that the young prince was taught to hunt: bears, boars, lions, leopards, deer, gazelles, wild sheep, and wild asses. When Alexander the Great ( 356–323 bc ) conquered the Persians, he took possession of their paradeisoi . His successors also acquired such parks, and when the Romans conquered the Hellenistic world they, in turn, acquired a taste for them. Varro ( 116–27 bc ), in describing the large hunting preserves found on the great estates in Italy, gives a vivid description of the wild animals on the estate of Quintus...

Arniston House

Arniston House   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...is a great mansion by William Adam built from 1726 for Robert Dundas in a designed landscape of 426 hectares/1,052 acres. Adam also laid out the grounds with a parterre and a pattern of avenues and rides. One of the avenues borrowed the landscape of the craggy escarpment of Arthur's Seat 20 km/12 miles away. Only traces of this formal scheme remain—the alignments of some avenues and an urn which stood originally at the centre of a formal wilderness . Most of the detail was swept away when the grounds were landscaped by Thomas White the elder in ...

Hamilton Palace

Hamilton Palace   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...one of the greatest houses in Scotland. The Hamiltons had lived here since the Middle Ages and their 16th-century house was rebuilt for the 3rd Duke of Hamilton in the late 17th century with advice from Sir Christopher Wren ( 1632–1723 ) and Sir William Bruce whose designs were executed by James Smith ( c .1645–1731 ). Great formal gardens were laid out for the new palace by Alexander Edward ( 1651–1708 ), with parterres in the French style, and a little later by William Adam . In 1732 Adam designed Chatelherault, a spectacular eyecatcher at the end of...

Pope, Alexander

Pope, Alexander (1688–1744)   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Alexander ( 1688–1744 ), English poet, gardener, and garden theorist whose maxim ‘Consult the Genius of the Place in all’ remains the single most useful principle of garden making and possibly the only rule which it is difficult to break successfully. Pope's own villa garden ( see Pope's garden ) on the Thames at Twickenham, ‘Haunt of the Muses’, where he went to live in 1719 , was famous in his time and drew such distinguished guests as Voltaire and Frederick, Prince of Wales. The style of his garden hovered between such old-fashioned features as ...

Cameron, Charles

Cameron, Charles (c.1743–1812)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...some distinguished park buildings, and a small town with a cathedral which could be viewed from the park. At Pavlovsk he designed the palace, the formal gardens around it, and landscaped a large area of the park, which Loudon attributed to Capability Brown . When Catherine died Cameron was dismissed by Paul I, but he was re-employed by Alexander I and designed some notable buildings as architect-in-chief to the Admiralty. Through an advertisement in the Edinburgh Evening Courant in 1784 , Cameron had recruited 73 Scottish craftsmen to work under him...

Prior Park

Prior Park   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Society and culture, Lifestyle, Home, and garden, Art & Architecture
Length:
333 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Somerset, England, is a great Palladian mansion built between 1735 and 1748 to the designs of John Wood the elder ( c .1705–1754 ) for Ralph Allen , the entrepreneur and quarry owner who supplied stone for the building of 18th-century Bath. The site, on the southern fringe of the city, lies at the head of a valley which slopes steeply to the north, giving magnificent views. When the house was being built a landscape park was laid out in the valley probably designed by Allen himself, and possibly with the help of his friend Alexander Pope . Pope certainly...

Oranienbaum

Oranienbaum   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...on the Gulf of Finland, is the site of the palace and park of Prince Alexander Menshikov , associate of Peter the Great . Begun by D. M. Fontana in 1710 and then continued by J. G. Schädel from 1713 until 1727 , Oranienbaum was one of the most magnificent residences of the early 18th century. Like Peterhof , the palace was built on a terrace facing the sea and was connected by stairways and terraces to the Lower Park, which was formally laid out with straight walks, parterres, fountains, and statues. There was a small harbour by the entrance to the...

Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya

Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...as superintendent and chief gardener by Alexander Moon . After various false starts Moon established the garden at Peradeniya, near Kandy, in 1821 , in a loop of the Mahaweli Ganga river, on the site of a royal palace; this was developed into the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, and remains one of the most attractive of all tropical botanical gardens, covering 61 hectares/150 acres at 470 m/1,540 ft above sea level. The garden declined after Moon's death in 1825 , but it gained a new lease of life with the appointment in 1844 of George Gardner , a...

Kendall, Donald M., Sculpture Gardens

Kendall, Donald M., Sculpture Gardens   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...a vibrant spatial relationship between the land and the vast works of art. First he created a path of tawny gravel to weave around and past the sculptures by Henry Moore , Alexander Calder , Louise Nelvelson , Isamu Noguchi , Max Ernst , Arnaldo Palmidoro , and Barbara Hepworth . Page called it his ‘golden pathway’. The path made exploring the garden an adventure and successfully linked together the disparate artworks. Then he planted trees—hundreds in the first year alone: ‘I use the trees as sculptures and the sculptures as flowers, and then I take it...

Pitmedden

Pitmedden   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Society and culture, Lifestyle, Home, and garden, Art & Architecture
Length:
267 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Ellon, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, is among the oldest gardens in Scotland whose exact date is known. On one of the entrance gates is the inscription ‘Fundat 2 May 1675 ’ together with the initials of its maker, Sir Alexander Seton, and of his wife Dame Margaret Lauder. The Great Garden retains its original stone walls enclosing a sunken space with a pair of dashing ogee-roofed pavilions in two corners and a double stone staircase leading down into the garden. In the 19th century the garden was in a state of decay after the house was destroyed by fire in 1818 ....

Fantaisie Palace

Fantaisie Palace   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...the Great of Prussia ( see Sanssouci ). By 1780 Elisabeth Friederike Sophie had created a varied formal garden divided into small sections with a pavilion, cascade, and Neptune Fountain. In 1770 she officially named her property ‘Fantaisie’. Between 1793 and 1795 Duchess Friederike Dorothee Sophie von Württemberg extended the complex in the style of a sentimental landscape garden with architectural features (catacomb, pillar of harmony, straw hut). And finally, from 1839 to 1881 , it was enlarged again by Duke Alexander von Württemberg in the...

Yelagin Island

Yelagin Island   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

.... The classical palace was built for her by Carlo Rossi ( 1775–1849 ), who also built the stables and kitchen, both appearing as impressive park buildings with nothing to indicate their actual function. The windows were all within inner courts, and the semicircular façade of the kitchen has, where windows would have been, niches with statues of ancient gods and heroes. Joseph Busch ( 1760–1838 ), whose father John Busch worked for Catherine the Great at Tsarskoe Selo , was engaged to take charge of the gardens and the landscape. The Empress, a...

folly

folly   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the truth of that, the problem about the term folly as it is usually employed is that it makes too many assumptions about the motive of the builder. After all, what seems a mad extravagance to a suburban gardener in the 21st century might have been considered a perfectly reasonable expense to an 18th-century landscaper. As Alexander Pope wrote in his Moral Essays , ‘Tis use alone that sanctifies Expense’. Conspicuous expenditure has rarely been more conspicuous than in the embellishment of the great landscape gardens. Rather than attempting to unravel the...

Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin)

Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...two palaces: the baroque Yekaterinsky (‘Catherine's’ after Catherine I, reigned 1725–27 ), given its final form by Rastrelli for the Empress Elizabeth (reigned 1741–61 ), and the neoclassical Alexandrovsky by Quarenghi ( 1744–1817 ) for Alexander I (reigned 1801–25 ), with their contiguous parks of 102 hectares/252 acres and 200 hectares/494 acres respectively. Catherine I had a small house here with gardens in the Dutch style by Jan Roosen in the early 1700s, but more imposing gardens in the grand manner accompanied the rebuilding of the palace, and...

Greece, ancient

Greece, ancient   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and rented out as utilitarian gardens for fruit and vegetables. The profit from these gardens supported cultic activities associated with the tomb and funerary festivals in honour of the dead. The Greek monarchs who ruled after the death of Alexander in 323 bc built palatial residences in their capitals at Alexandria, Pergamon, Pella, and Antioch, but the only palace at which gardens are attested is that in Alexandria. Groves were planted in the grounds of the palace itself, and in the palace district as a whole were many public and religious buildings,...

grotto

grotto   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

.... The word is part of an etymological cluster which includes the Latin crypta , Italian grotta , and French grotte , signifying an underground cave, chamber, or vault. The grotto as a mysterious place in which extraordinary events might occur was established in classical literature. Cyclops's cave described in Book 9 of Homer's Odyssey gripped the imagination, and the poet Alexander Pope , who translated the Odyssey , was inspired by Cyclops's ‘grott’ in his grotto making activities. In Renaissance Italy the grotto became a much-loved garden...

British Isles

British Isles   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... ( 1731 ) was one of the most infuential reference books of plants. Its revised editions trace the great increase in available garden plants. By the time of the 6th edition ( 1768 ) Miller was able to write that the number of plants cultivated in England ‘are more than double those which were here when the first edition of this book was published’. The theoretical writings of Joseph Addison , Alexander Pope , Stephen Switzer , Richard Payne Knight , and Uvedale Price have been much discussed by garden historians but their impact on the way people gardened...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Ganeshkind. Under Alexander Gibson in the late 1830s the garden established several outstations around Junnar to the north of Poona, which were largely used for growing economic plants, but at the largest of these, Hewra, Gibson's interests as a pioneering forest conservator resulted in the formation of an arboretum. In the city of Bombay the Agri-Horticultural Society of Western India was formed in 1830 and had a garden at Sewree; this closed and in 1861 the society ran the Victoria Gardens at Byculla in Bombay until 1873 , when the society fell into...

Oranienbaum

Oranienbaum  

(Lomonosov), Russia, 41 km/26 miles from St Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland, is the site of the palace and park of Prince Alexander Menshikov, associate of Peter the Great. ...
Pasargadae

Pasargadae  

(Πασαργάδαι), an Achaemenid centre north-east of Persepolis, where Cyrus (1) the Great ‘conquered Astyages the Mede in his last battle … founded a city, and constructed a palace as a ...

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