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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

macedoine

macedoine   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...diced very small, served either hot or cold. The term is also applied to fruit salads made of finely chopped fruit. The term is of French origin, and is probably a reference to the proverbially heterogeneous mixture of races in Macedonia (a region in the Balkans) in the time of Alexander the Great. Since it was acquired by English in the early nineteenth century, it has been used sporadically in the metaphorical sense ‘medley, assortment’: ‘Such is the tattle of our beaus. These simple elements compose…The Macedoine of London-talk’, Henry Luttrell, Advice...

sugar

sugar   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...first penetrated the continent of Europe, the only sweetening agent they had available to them in significant quantities was honey. In India, however, there grew a large stout plant of the grass family whose juice when refined (a process probably discovered about 5000 bc ) produced deliciously sweet crystals. These were named in Sanskrit śakarā , which originally meant ‘gravel, grit’. Gradually word of the wondrous substance spread westwards. Alexander the Great's general Nearchus, for instance, in the fourth century bc , reported that the Indians had a cane...

Sanders, Harland

Sanders, Harland (1890–1980)   Reference library

Corinna Hawkes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...before long, Harman had opened the first franchise. Seeing great potential in Sanders as a marketing image, Harman named the franchise Colonel Sanders’ Kentucky Fried Chicken, and painted the Colonel's face on the signboard above his Utah store. Helped by frequent radio advertising, the franchise was a great success. But the following year, the Colonel faced downfall: Highway 25 was rerouted away from his Corbin café, removing all his potential customers. Undeterred, the Colonel took to the road himself, relentlessly selling his recipe to roadside eateries....

Cocktails

Cocktails   Reference library

Dale DeGroff

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...many as six bars, and it was in these bars that the business of the political precincts and wards was done. It was in these bars that the cocktail culture of the latter half of the nineteenth century was born. Taxation. Fermented and distilled beverages were a tremendous source of revenue for the young republic. Alexander Hamilton paid off the war debt to the French after the Revolutionary War with an excise tax on whiskey and rum. The War of 1812 was also paid for by taxation; however, in 1817 , after the war debt was settled, a forty-five-year hiatus of...

Russian American Food

Russian American Food   Reference library

Darra Goldstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... 1932 , after the repeal of Prohibition, the restaurant was bought by Alexander (Sasha) Maeff, whose philosophy of enjoying life became the restaurant's mantra. (Nikita Khrushchev is credited with the line “Life is short, live it up!” but he was not the first Russian to say it.) The Russian Tea Room was not just about good food. It also served up an atmosphere of conviviality; it provided tables where deals were made and hearts were broken. Maeff installed a bar called the Casino Russe, which introduced Americans to specialty vodka drinks like the boyar cocktail...

Sandwiches

Sandwiches   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...foods in the twenty-first century. Irena Chalmers and Milton Glaser 's Great American Food Almanac ( 1986 ) estimated that the average American student consumed fifteen hundred peanut butter and jelly sandwiches before high school graduation. They estimated that Americans ate approximately 45 billion sandwiches every year, which averaged out to 193 sandwiches per person. Through the American military and American fast food establishments, the Anglo-American sandwich went global during the second part of the twentieth century. Sandwiches in the...

Wine

Wine   Reference library

Thomas Pinney, Steven M. Craig, Charles L. Sullivan, Hudson Cattell, and Tonya Hopkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...said, a vinifera from the Cape of Good Hope, and he called it the cape grape. In fact, though he did not know it, what he had was the result of a chance combination of an unknown vinifera with a native grape, probably originating near the vineyard that William Penn himself had planted on the Schuylkill River years earlier. The grape had been found by James Alexander in 1740 and later came to be called the Alexander. It is the first recognized native hybrid, showing the resistance to disease of its American parent and something of the superior fruit quality...

Cannibalism

Cannibalism   Reference library

Gary Allen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...evangelists, and colonizers. Various rulings issued by Alexander VI of Spain gave Europeans (especially the Spanish) the right to enslave any cannibals they encountered—so they had an economic incentive for seeing cannibals behind every bush. Of course they did, encountering various kinds of cannibals here. The modern terms for the two basic types of cannibalism are endo- and exocannibalism. Endocannibals only eat people from within their own group—be it the family group, tribal group, or ethnic group. Endocannibalism is sometimes called “love...

Festivals

Festivals   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...weekend. The National Apple Harvest Festival in Arendtsville, Pennsylvania, promotes apples with heritage demonstrations of cider pressing and apple butter cooking. Cherry production in Traverse City, Michigan, is so important to the local economy that it is celebrated in an eight-day extravaganza called the National Cherry Festival. Alexander W. Livingston , a resident of Reynoldsburg, Ohio, is honored for commercial development of the tomato at the town's annual festival, which features tomato exhibits and tomato cookery. Americans pay tribute to the meat and...

Globalization of American Food

Globalization of American Food   Reference library

Walter Carroll

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of California Press, 2008. A useful, accessible overview of the world food system. Minkel, J. R. “Chronic Diseases of Rich Countries Begin to Plague Developing Nations.” Scientific American Online. November 10, 2006. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=chronic-diseases-of-rich. Nüztenadel, Alexander , and Frank Trentmann . Food and Globalization: Consumption, Markets, and Politics in the Modern World . Oxford: Berg, 2008. This collection provides useful background on the globalization of food. Phillips, Lynne . “ Food and Globalization...

Dining Rooms and Meal Service

Dining Rooms and Meal Service   Reference library

Cathy K. Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The Scottish physician Alexander Hamilton, traveling up the Hudson River in 1744 , recorded a poor family's dining aspirations: although living in a scantily furnished cottage, the family had some stoneware tea dishes, a teapot, and a dozen worn, but shiny, pewter plates and spoons. A generation earlier, simple wooden implements would have been expected. The same Dr. Hamilton noted that the affluent Dutch community in Albany, New York, “set out their cabinets and buffets much with china,” some of which, with its pierced feet, was hung decoratively. By the...

Rice

Rice   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith, Andrew F. Smith, and Zachary Nowak

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the U.S.-Canadian border for hundreds of miles west and north of the Great Lakes) meant that it was important to many indigenous populations. The original method of harvest—and indeed, the only method still permitted for natural stands in the state of Minnesota—was to use two small sticks (knockers) to bend the stalks over and gently tap the ripe seed off into a canoe or flat-bottomed boat. As one of the main states where wild rice is harvested from the wild, Minnesota regulates collecting as part of its hunting and trapping laws: wild stands of the plant...

Herbs

Herbs   Reference library

Gary Allen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...( Portulaca oloracae ), and sorrel—all edible plants that had found their way from the Old World to the New. While the herbs were often brought along purposely, sometimes they traveled along on their own. We call such plants “weeds.” From an evolutionary standpoint, weeds are great success stories. The gardener's opinion of them is somewhat less enthusiastic. The vigorous growth of these introduced species makes them especially good at claiming disturbed soils as their own. The tilled soil of domestic agriculture, unfortunately, is prime “disturbed soil” for...

macedoine

macedoine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... a French term, which came into use towards the end of the 18th century, indicating a salad mixture of fruits or vegetables in small pieces; by analogy with Macedonia, the empire of Alexander the Great, composed of numerous disparate territories. The term is useful and has spread to other...

Theophrastus

Theophrastus   Reference library

Andrew Dalby

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...had accompanied Alexander the Great’s expedition, crossing SW Asia to the banks of the Indus. They sent back information on the trees and the food plants of Persia, Afghanistan, and India: thus Theophrastus’ writings contain the earliest reports in Europe of citrons, bananas, mangoes, jackfruits , pistachios , jujubes , and tamarinds . The researches of Theophrastus contributed directly to the botanical information in Pliny’s Latin Natural History and were also incorporated in Greek and Roman dietary and pharmacological writings. The classification of...

dogwood

dogwood   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...the Kizilcik fruit was not ready and ripe for eating. Seytan was patient, but he wondered what had happened. Then to his great surprise he discovered that this was one of the very last fruits to ripen at the end of summer, so his chagrin was great. Ever since then the Turks have called the tree:—‘Seytan alditan agaci’—the tree that deceived Satan. The same author relates, as evidence of the use of the tree in antiquity, that the famous and un-untieable Gordian knot was formed from a thong of its leathery bark. (Alexander the Great, acquainted with the...

Redding, Cyrus

Redding, Cyrus (1785–1870)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...inspired by the disparity between the wines then available in the British Isles and what he tasted in cellars all over Europe ( see adulteration ). Like Jullien, he was an intrepid traveller and his book includes observations not just on European wines but on those of Asia, Africa, and both North and South America. His emphasis on the word Modern owes much to his criticism of earlier writers such as Sir Edward Barry and Alexander henderson ( see literature of wine ), whose reverence for classical wines he felt was misplaced. The first edition of A...

Macedonia

Macedonia   Reference library

Maria Kaneva-Johnson

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... bears the name given in antiquity to the region which was the heart of the empire of Alexander the Great and has survived in various shapes and sizes, and under various sovereignties, until in 1992 it left the Yugoslav Federation to become an independent state. Here, living side by side, are Turks, Greeks, Gypsies, Albanians, Jews, Vlachs, Serbs, as well as the Macedonians who form the greater part of the population. The ethnic mix has given rise to the French culinary term macedoine . The long hot summers of the region herald the Mediterranean...

tutmaç

tutmaç   Reference library

Charles Perry

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...in the remotest corners of the Turkish-speaking world, from the Tatars on the middle Volga to the Salars in Gansu province, China, and the isolated pagan Turkish nationalities of the Altai mountains. In his 11th-century dictionary of Turkish dialects, Mahmud al-Kashghari recorded a pleasant and quite unbelievable folk-tale about how tutmach was invented at the behest of Alexander the Great, whom he refers to by his Koranic name, Dhu al-Qarnain: When Dhu al-Qarnain emerged from Zulumat [the Land of Darkness where the sun disappears when it sets, and the...

Sonoma

Sonoma   Reference library

Linda Murphy

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,561 words

...than the welter of names suggests, but Sonoma still gives would-be gurus some of their most engaging opportunities to define subtle boundaries by taste and taste alone. The full roster follows. Alexander Valley and Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak AVAs The largest and most fully planted of Sonoma county’s many vineyard valleys, Alexander Valley takes in the Russian River watershed upstream of Healdsburg north all the way to the Sonoma–Mendocino county line north of Cloverdale. In 2011 , the Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak AVA was created within Alexander Valley...

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