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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...king. The grateful Gordius thanked the people and honored Zeus in the temple square by dedicating his vehicle to the god and tying its pole to its yoke by means of a complex knot. An oracle claimed that the one who could untie that knot would rule in Asia . When Alexander came to Phrygia, he cut the knot with his sword and proclaimed himself the conqueror named by the oracle. When in 331 he made a pilgrimage to a great temple of the god Amon-Ra in Egypt — a god the Greeks thought of as a version of Zeus—he decided that, like the old Egyptian...

macedoine

macedoine   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...diced very small, served either hot or cold. The term is also applied to fruit salads made of finely chopped fruit. The term is of French origin, and is probably a reference to the proverbially heterogeneous mixture of races in Macedonia (a region in the Balkans) in the time of Alexander the Great. Since it was acquired by English in the early nineteenth century, it has been used sporadically in the metaphorical sense ‘medley, assortment’: ‘Such is the tattle of our beaus. These simple elements compose…The Macedoine of London-talk’, Henry Luttrell, Advice...

paradeisos

paradeisos   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Cyrus , describes the animals that the young prince was taught to hunt: bears, boars, lions, leopards, deer, gazelles, wild sheep, and wild asses. When Alexander the Great ( 356–323 bc ) conquered the Persians, he took possession of their paradeisoi . His successors also acquired such parks, and when the Romans conquered the Hellenistic world they, in turn, acquired a taste for them. Varro ( 116–27 bc ), in describing the large hunting preserves found on the great estates in Italy, gives a vivid description of the wild animals on the estate of Quintus...

Arniston House

Arniston House   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...is a great mansion by William Adam built from 1726 for Robert Dundas in a designed landscape of 426 hectares/1,052 acres. Adam also laid out the grounds with a parterre and a pattern of avenues and rides. One of the avenues borrowed the landscape of the craggy escarpment of Arthur's Seat 20 km/12 miles away. Only traces of this formal scheme remain—the alignments of some avenues and an urn which stood originally at the centre of a formal wilderness . Most of the detail was swept away when the grounds were landscaped by Thomas White the elder in ...

al-Khidr, the Green One, Tests the Patience of Moses

al-Khidr, the Green One, Tests the Patience of Moses (Arabic areas)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...the Green One, Tests the Patience of Moses (Arabic areas) al-Khidr, the Green One (Swahili: Hishiri; Fulfulde: Halilu), a mythic hero, was the spokesman for the divine. He was associated with the sea, commanding the obedience of the four quarters; he was the deputy of God on the sea and his representative on the earth. He revealed esoteric doctrines to men of exceptional sanctity. al-Khidr became immortal when he drank from the Well of Life. He encouraged Alexander, the “two-horned one,” so called because, al-Khidr told him, he was the lord of the two...

Amadán

Amadán   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., the Great Fool, is the Perceval -like hero of several Irish folk narratives and a sometime leader of the fairy host in narrative and poetry. Amadán na bruidhne, the fool of the fairy mounds or palaces, is greatly feared because he may administer the fairy stroke , causing paralysis, crippling, or death; he is most active in June. There does not appear to be a connection between the folk figure and the colloquial use of Amadán in spoken Irish and English. See EACHTRA AN AMADÁIN MHÓIR . A Scottish ballad version is ‘Laoidh an Amadain Mhóir’, in Alexander...

Hamilton Palace

Hamilton Palace   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...one of the greatest houses in Scotland. The Hamiltons had lived here since the Middle Ages and their 16th-century house was rebuilt for the 3rd Duke of Hamilton in the late 17th century with advice from Sir Christopher Wren ( 1632–1723 ) and Sir William Bruce whose designs were executed by James Smith ( c .1645–1731 ). Great formal gardens were laid out for the new palace by Alexander Edward ( 1651–1708 ), with parterres in the French style, and a little later by William Adam . In 1732 Adam designed Chatelherault, a spectacular eyecatcher at the end of...

Pope, Alexander

Pope, Alexander (1688–1744)   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Alexander ( 1688–1744 ), English poet, gardener, and garden theorist whose maxim ‘Consult the Genius of the Place in all’ remains the single most useful principle of garden making and possibly the only rule which it is difficult to break successfully. Pope's own villa garden ( see Pope's garden ) on the Thames at Twickenham, ‘Haunt of the Muses’, where he went to live in 1719 , was famous in his time and drew such distinguished guests as Voltaire and Frederick, Prince of Wales. The style of his garden hovered between such old-fashioned features as ...

Cameron, Charles

Cameron, Charles (c.1743–1812)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...some distinguished park buildings, and a small town with a cathedral which could be viewed from the park. At Pavlovsk he designed the palace, the formal gardens around it, and landscaped a large area of the park, which Loudon attributed to Capability Brown . When Catherine died Cameron was dismissed by Paul I, but he was re-employed by Alexander I and designed some notable buildings as architect-in-chief to the Admiralty. Through an advertisement in the Edinburgh Evening Courant in 1784 , Cameron had recruited 73 Scottish craftsmen to work under him...

Prior Park

Prior Park   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Society and culture, Lifestyle, Home, and garden, Art & Architecture
Length:
333 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Somerset, England, is a great Palladian mansion built between 1735 and 1748 to the designs of John Wood the elder ( c .1705–1754 ) for Ralph Allen , the entrepreneur and quarry owner who supplied stone for the building of 18th-century Bath. The site, on the southern fringe of the city, lies at the head of a valley which slopes steeply to the north, giving magnificent views. When the house was being built a landscape park was laid out in the valley probably designed by Allen himself, and possibly with the help of his friend Alexander Pope . Pope certainly...

Oranienbaum

Oranienbaum   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...on the Gulf of Finland, is the site of the palace and park of Prince Alexander Menshikov , associate of Peter the Great . Begun by D. M. Fontana in 1710 and then continued by J. G. Schädel from 1713 until 1727 , Oranienbaum was one of the most magnificent residences of the early 18th century. Like Peterhof , the palace was built on a terrace facing the sea and was connected by stairways and terraces to the Lower Park, which was formally laid out with straight walks, parterres, fountains, and statues. There was a small harbour by the entrance to the...

Rishabha

Rishabha (South and Central Asia)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...from ordinary existence. To Sravana Belgola, the granite eminence sacred to the Jains in Mysore, came the aged Chandragupta Maurya, having taken a similar vow of renunciation and travelled southwards with his guru , Bhadrabahu. This monarch had come to power in 322 bc , five years after the raid of Alexander the Great into the north-western plains of India, and under his energetic rule the states of the Ganges valley were amalgamated into a powerful empire. Like the Buddha, Chandragupta Maurya belonged to the pre-Aryan nobility, whose more vigorous sons...

Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya

Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...as superintendent and chief gardener by Alexander Moon . After various false starts Moon established the garden at Peradeniya, near Kandy, in 1821 , in a loop of the Mahaweli Ganga river, on the site of a royal palace; this was developed into the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, and remains one of the most attractive of all tropical botanical gardens, covering 61 hectares/150 acres at 470 m/1,540 ft above sea level. The garden declined after Moon's death in 1825 , but it gained a new lease of life with the appointment in 1844 of George Gardner , a...

Kendall, Donald M., Sculpture Gardens

Kendall, Donald M., Sculpture Gardens   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...a vibrant spatial relationship between the land and the vast works of art. First he created a path of tawny gravel to weave around and past the sculptures by Henry Moore , Alexander Calder , Louise Nelvelson , Isamu Noguchi , Max Ernst , Arnaldo Palmidoro , and Barbara Hepworth . Page called it his ‘golden pathway’. The path made exploring the garden an adventure and successfully linked together the disparate artworks. Then he planted trees—hundreds in the first year alone: ‘I use the trees as sculptures and the sculptures as flowers, and then I take it...

Pitmedden

Pitmedden   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Society and culture, Lifestyle, Home, and garden, Art & Architecture
Length:
267 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Ellon, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, is among the oldest gardens in Scotland whose exact date is known. On one of the entrance gates is the inscription ‘Fundat 2 May 1675 ’ together with the initials of its maker, Sir Alexander Seton, and of his wife Dame Margaret Lauder. The Great Garden retains its original stone walls enclosing a sunken space with a pair of dashing ogee-roofed pavilions in two corners and a double stone staircase leading down into the garden. In the 19th century the garden was in a state of decay after the house was destroyed by fire in 1818 ....

Society for Folk Life Studies

Society for Folk Life Studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Founded September 1961 , ‘The Society aims to further the study of traditional ways of life in Great Britain and Ireland and to provide a common meeting point for the many institutions engaged with the various aspects of the subject’. The movement towards the founding of folk museums and folk life programmes in Britain was already taking shape in the 1930s, heavily influenced by Scandinavian models, and the need for a society and a journal was apparent, but the intervention of the Second World War postponed further development. The relatively short-lived...

Judaism and its Abrahamic relatives

Judaism and its Abrahamic relatives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...religious ways of the indigenous Canaanites . Judah became an exclusively Jewish theocratic state. The Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty in the Middle East included not only Babylonia and Palestine but also Egypt and much of Anatolia . The empire lasted until 333–331 b.c.e. , when Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great of Macedonia. With Alexander's early death in 323 , the empire was divided up by his generals. The Ptolemies gained control in Egypt, the Seleucids and Parthians in Mesopotamia , Palestine, and Persia ( Iran ). Once...

Fantaisie Palace

Fantaisie Palace   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the Great of Prussia ( see Sanssouci ). By 1780 Elisabeth Friederike Sophie had created a varied formal garden divided into small sections with a pavilion, cascade, and Neptune Fountain. In 1770 she officially named her property ‘Fantaisie’. Between 1793 and 1795 Duchess Friederike Dorothee Sophie von Württemberg extended the complex in the style of a sentimental landscape garden with architectural features (catacomb, pillar of harmony, straw hut). And finally, from 1839 to 1881 , it was enlarged again by Duke Alexander von Württemberg in the...

Yelagin Island

Yelagin Island   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

.... The classical palace was built for her by Carlo Rossi ( 1775–1849 ), who also built the stables and kitchen, both appearing as impressive park buildings with nothing to indicate their actual function. The windows were all within inner courts, and the semicircular façade of the kitchen has, where windows would have been, niches with statues of ancient gods and heroes. Joseph Busch ( 1760–1838 ), whose father John Busch worked for Catherine the Great at Tsarskoe Selo , was engaged to take charge of the gardens and the landscape. The Empress, a...

Daniel

Daniel (West Asia)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...recurred after the death of Alexander the Great, whose conquest of the Persian Empire left rich pickings for his generals, and ‘they brought untold miseries upon the world’. In particular the Seleucid ruler Antiochus Epiphanes ( 175–163 bc ) drove them into open revolt. The Book of Daniel , the earliest example of apocalyptic literature, was propaganda written to comfort the Hebrews resisting the Hellenizing policy of the Seleucids. It concerns the discomfiture of Nebuchadnezzar, the symbol of all oppression, and the vindication of Daniel as the true adherent...

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