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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... the Great . Alexander lived from 356 to 323 b.c.e. and ruled from 336. In the Middle East he generally is known as Alexander the Macedonian. He conquered the Persian Achaemenid Empire and introduced Hellenism throughout the region, but his influence in the East derives not from his conquests but from his relation to Aristotle and his superhuman qualities. After Alexander 's death many stories—some fabulous—circulated about him. Known collectively as the Alexander romance, they were translated into many languages in many versions. Before the coming of...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323bce)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
73 words

... the Great ( 356–323 bce ) King of Macedon from 336 who conquered the Persian Empire. * Greek culture then permeated the Mediterranean region and Greek became the international language, leading to the Greek translation of the OT ( * LXX ), and the writing of the NT, and the early Christian liturgies, in Greek. The Seleucid dynasty derived from Alexander (from 275 bce ), which explains the interest in Alexander shown in 1 Macc. 1:...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (334)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
55 words

...Alexander the Great (d. 334 B.C.E. ) Arabic al-Iskandar . Conqueror of Egypt and the Persian Achaemenid Empire and founder of cities. Often identified with Dhu al-Qarnayn, “the two-horned” of the Quran ( 18:83–94 ), who figures prominently in Muslim eschatology by serving the cause of the righteous. Considered a Muslim believer and by some a...

Alexander III (“The Great”)

Alexander III (“The Great”)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Religion
Length:
375 words

... III (“The Great”) . Macedonian, born in 356 bce . After the assassination of his father, Philip II , at Aegae in 336, Alexander ascended to the throne and took over his father's plan of a crusade to punish the Persians for Xerxes' invasion of Greece almost a century and a half earlier. Alexander crossed the Hellespont with a total force of about fifty thousand in 334 and defeated the Persian army in three major battles, the last in 331 . These victories opened the heart of the Persian empire to Alexander. Persepolis was sacked and the palace...

Alexander III (“The Great”)

Alexander III (“The Great”)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
381 words

... III (“The Great”) . Macedonian, born in 356 BCE . After the assassination of his father, Philip II , at Aegae in 336 , Alexander ascended to the throne and took over his father's plan of a crusade to punish the Persians for Xerxes' invasion of Greece almost a century and a half earlier. Alexander crossed the Hellespont with a total force of about fifty thousand in 334 and defeated the Persian army in three major battles, the last in 331. These victories opened the heart of the Persian empire to Alexander. Persepolis was sacked and the palace of...

Alexander Jannaeus

Alexander Jannaeus (103 to 76)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... Damascus , historian of Herod the Great and a source for Josephus. The Temple Scroll (11Q19 lxiv.6–9) states that whoever turns his nation over to a foreigner must be hung on a tree. Thus, Yigael Yadin suggested that Alexander Jannaeus executed his enemies according to the laws appearing in the Temple Scroll, and concluded that Pesher Nahum, therefore, does not criticize Jannaeus. This suggestion cannot be accepted since the author of the pesher alluded to Deuteronomy 21.23 : (“You shall not leave his corpse overnight on the tree but you shall bury it on...

Mallā

Mallā (T.)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...rather than a great city, the Buddha disabused him of this notion, telling him that Kuśinagarī had previously been the magnificent capital named Kusāvatī of an earlier cakravartin king named Sudarśana ( P. Sudassana ). The Buddha’s body was cremated at the Makutabandhana shrine in Kuśinagarī, after which the relics were removed to the assembly hall. There, the brāhmaṇa Doṇa (S. Droṇa ) distributed them among the many claimants from different kingdoms and clans that were demanding their share. The Buddha claimed many disciples from the Mallā country as...

Mahāvyutpatti

Mahāvyutpatti (T.)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...vocabulary. The work is organized into 283 categories, the purpose of some of which (the eighteen kinds of śūnyatā , the ten virtuous actions, the thirty-two marks of a mahāpuruṣa ) are more self-evident than others (“names of strange things,” “various terms”). During the seventeenth century, Chinese, Mongolian, and Manchurian equivalencies were added to the lexicon so that the terms would be available in the four major languages used in the Qing empire (Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, and Mongolian). The first English translation was made by Alexander Csoma De...

Ptolemies

Ptolemies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Alexander; on the other, the writings of Demetrius, a Jewish historian and exegete (active in the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator) who was the first to systematically incorporate the biblical accounts of the Jews' past into the chronological framework of Greek mythology and history. These two opposing poles—apostasy on the one hand and the development of new modes of Jewish culture on the other—remained characteristic of the Jewish Diaspora experience for many centuries to come. In the reign of Euergetes's successor, Ptolemy IV Philopator ( 222–205 bce ),...

Bonner, Edmund

Bonner, Edmund (1500?–1569)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
381 words

...with great energy; in four years about seventy-five Protestants were burned in his diocese (out of a national total of fewer than three hundred). For this, he earned the title “bloody butcher Bonner” among Protestants. It is clear, however, that he and his officials labored hard to persuade those accused of heresy to recant. In 1559 Bonner refused to take the oath of supremacy as required by Elizabeth 's government. He was once more deprived of his bishopric and spent the remainder of his life in the Marshalsea prison. Alexander, Gina . Bonner and the...

Dey, Lal Behari

Dey, Lal Behari (18 December 1824)   Reference library

Sunil M. Caleb

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...1894 ) Endowed with intellect, the spirit of independence, and moral courage, Lal Behari Dey 's major contribution to Christianity in India was to highlight the need for transcending denominationalism as well as racial superiority. Dey was educated at the General Assembly's Institution begun by the Free Church of Scotland missionary Alexander Duff . The teachers at the institution as well as two young converts, Mahendra Lal Basak and Kailash Chandra Mukherjee (who both unfortunately died young), exercised a great influence upon him and he was...

Numismatics

Numismatics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...The great number of coins of Alexander Jannaeus is characteristic of his rich minting. Many of the coins of Alexander Jannaeus were found in late phases. Similar phenomena are known at other sites, especially Masada. There is a possibility, although it has not yet been proven, that the coins of Alexander Janneaus circulated over a long time, and were in use under Herod the Great , Herod's sons, and the Roman procurators. These coins are of a very small denomination, and may have been used as half-proutot, which were in demand over a long period of time. The...

Pesher Nahum

Pesher Nahum   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of the executions. The historical significance of this datum is that it corroborates Josephus's depiction of the cruel revenge exacted by Alexander Jannaeus upon his Pharisaic enemies. The Qumran community certainly welcomed the punishment of the Pharisees, but their view of Alexander Jannaeus is the subject of debate. From the perspective of religious concerns, the words “hang alive,” which may imply crucifixion, have been scrutinized as a possible indication that the community accepted crucifixion as a legitimate mode of execution. This has been...

Margaret of Parma

Margaret of Parma (1522–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
939 words

...Montmorency, count of Hornes. On the marriage of Margaret's son Alexander ( November 1565 ), a number of Protestant nobles formed a “league” opposed to Philip II's placards against heresy and to the Inquisition. With like-minded Catholic nobles they formed a confederation consisting largely of the lesser nobility and on 5 April 1566 presented to the governess-general a request for the suspension of the placards and the convening of the States-General. Under the pressure of circumstances, Margaret modified the application of the placards, but this “moderation”...

Mitchell, J. Murray

Mitchell, J. Murray (1815)   Reference library

Atul Y. Aghamkar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...contributed to the study of the Marathi language and in the task of establishing outstanding educational institutions. Prominent among them were John Wilson and John Murray Mitchell . Mitchell joined Wilson * in 1838 , having studied Divinity in Scotland. However, with all the other missionaries of the Church of Scotland * , he joined the Free Church when the Church of Scotland divided in 1843 . He primarily worked in Poona in western India until 1863 , when he returned to parish ministry in Scotland. In 1867 , Alexander Duff * brought him...

Hellenism

Hellenism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...scholars identify the process by which the eastern Mediterranean basin and western Asia adopted Greek culture after the conquests of Alexander the Great (d. 323 bce ) as Hellenism . The main channels of transmission were the Greek cities founded by Alexander and his successors in the newly conquered territories and the waves of Macedonian and Greek immigrants. The language spoken in this much-expanded Greek world was a common (Grk., koine ) dialect that replaced the hitherto prevailing local Greek dialects, but many of the native languages,...

Seleucids

Seleucids   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

.... The house of Seleucus (Gk., Seleukos ) was one of the dynasties that inherited the world empire of Alexander the Great . After the period of the Diadochoi ( 323–301 bce ), Seleucus, one of Alexander's generals, established an empire of his own, which encompassed the greatest area among the four empires that came into existence toward the end of the fourth century bce . (Their founders were Ptolemy I, Lysimachus, Cassander, and Seleucus.) At its peak the Seleucid empire covered approximately the area of the Persian (Achemenid) Empire, with the...

Asper, Hans

Asper, Hans (1499–1571)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
379 words

...of the inner circle of the Zurich magistrates, the Large Council ( Grossrat ), Asper was known after 1545 as “the Apelles of Zurich.” Like the original Apelles, court painter of Alexander the Great ( 336–323 BC), Asper painted the portraits of Reformation leaders and other influential citizens. His artistic imagination was fueled by the German artist Albrecht Dürer , whose Zurich student was Asper's teacher, and all his work discloses the spirit of the late Gothic period. A member of a well-known Zurich family—his father, Heinrich, also served on the...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... . In the genealogies of Genesis and 1 Chronicles, Yavan is the eponymous ancestor of these peoples. By the time of the Book of Daniel , the use of the word was extended to include the Greek-speaking territories on the western side of the Aegean too, and particularly the area ruled by Alexander the Great ( cf. Dn. 8.21 , 10.20 , 11.3 ). In a similar way, the word Kittim , connected to Yavan in the biblical genealogies and originally signifying Cyprus, also underwent an extension in meaning so that it too could denote Greeks in general. The...

Languages

Languages   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to spread to the eastern Mediterranean, and Judah was affected. Only when Alexander the Great annexed Judah ( 332 bce ) was the Greek language gradually introduced, eventually becoming widely spoken along with Aramaic. Evidence for the use of Greek in Judah prior to the third century bce is very sparse. The oldest extant Greek text from Judah is an Edomite-Greek bilingual ostracon from Khirbet el-Kom dated to the sixth year of Ptolemy II Philadelphus ( 277 bce ); and the next Greek inscription recalls the victory of Antiochus III (the Great) at Raphia in...

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