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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Richard III

Richard III   Quick reference

An A-Z Guide to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...for the Old Vic in 1944–5 and 1948–9 , and for his film version he had John Gielgud as Clarence and Ralph Richardson as Buckingham; Margaret was omitted, but Jane Shore was introduced as a nonspeaking role. Ian Holm played Richard in Peter Hall 's Stratford-upon-Avon production, as part of The Wars of the Roses , in 1963 , etc., with Peggy Ashcroft as Margaret. In 1984 , Bill Alexander directed an intelligent production at Stratford with Antony Sher as a brilliant Richard. Despite the precedent of Ashcroft's Margaret, Bill Alexander cut...

Alexander [Quigley], Jane

Alexander [Quigley], Jane (28 Oct. 1939)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
125 words

... [Quigley], Jane (b. Boston , 28 Oct. 1939 ) Actress . Her understated performances, both on stage and in film, attracted notice in the 1970s. Her most notable early stage performance was in Howard Sackler 's Pulitzer Prize winning The Great White Hope ( 1967 ), playing the white girlfriend of a black prize-fighter, Jack Jefferson . She followed this with further critical acclaim, playing Lavinia in Mourning Becomes Electra ( 1972 ) and making appearances in First Monday in October ( 1978 ), Monday after the Miracle ( 1982 ), Shadowlands (...

Laughton, Charles

Laughton, Charles (1 July 1899)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
846 words

...psychology or observation in the way a great painter or sculptor might. He creates an image (not purely visual but vocal and emotional) of a scale and an expressive intensity imbued with human feeling that gives it universal resonance. The only actor on film with whom he can be compared is Nikolai Cherkassov , Eisenstein 's Ivan the Terrible and Alexander Nevsky , but Laughton's touch is more human, which earns him supreme greatness. Simon Callow S. Callow , Charles Laughton: A Difficult Actor (1987) C. Higham , Charles Laughton (1976) E. Lanchester , ...

Bergman, Ingmar

Bergman, Ingmar (14 July 1918)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
315 words

... and playwright . A man of great energy, honesty, perception and charisma, he created conditions of creative trust in which artists and actors such as Bibi Andersson , Liv Ullman , Ingrid Thulin , Harriet Andersson , Max von Sydow , Gunnar Bjornstrand and Erland Josefson produced brilliant film and stage work. Famous films such as Summer with Monica ( 1952 ), Persona ( 1966 ), Cries and Whispers ( 1973 ) and his last, Fanny and Alexander ( 1982 ), focus on human behaviour under extreme pressure: the threat of death, pressure of sexual...

Rattigan, Terence

Rattigan, Terence (9 June 1911)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
483 words

...play with Playbill , comprising the theatrical farce Harlequinade and The Browning Version , depicting the retirement of a schoolmaster and his momentary redemption through a schoolboy's gift. Neither Adventure Story ( 1949 ), about Alexander the Great, nor Who is Sylvia? ( 1950 ), a lightweight bachelor farce, was a hit, and Rattigan's attacks on the ‘play of ideas’ lost him favour with critics. But he recovered to write perhaps his best play, The Deep Blue Sea ( 1952 ). With bleak optimism, revealing an affinity with late Ibsen , it tells of a...

magic

magic   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,193 words

...the saw-wielding male. An exception to this rule in the early years of the century was Adelaide Herrmann ( 1853–1932 ), widow of the popular Alexander Herrmann, who took on her husband's act after his death, including the dangerous bullet-catching trick. Despite sexist attitudes among some male magicians, women such as Frances Marshall in America and Fay Presto in Britain have shown that it is quite possible for women to perform magic entertainingly and effectively. Like new variety , an alternative or new magic circuit was developed in the 1980s. The...

Priestley, J[ohn] B[oynton]

Priestley, J[ohn] B[oynton] (13 Sept. 1894)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,509 words

...on to something that you should have let go. Exercises such as those associated with the Alexander Technique help; you trace your spine and your limbs, relax your gut, release the neck, and unknot the muscles that tense when you are about to face an audience. Fitness also helps the memory and the reflexes and allows the actor to develop as full a physical vocabulary as possible. It's great news when your body finds an image that expresses the character without using a word. As Kean I had to practise extremely hard to convince an audience that I could...

physical preparation

physical preparation   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
882 words

...the limbs, and kindling the enjoyment of containing that freedom within simple forms. But structures in movement, whether apparently wild or diminutive and subtle, must be built upon a healthy skeletal foundation. The work of F. Matthias Alexander is the best in this field, and his technique is widely used in drama schools, musical academies and theatres. Free from major physical problems and fully prepared in this way, the actor can develop and maintain a remarkably efficient mechanism. What every responsible actor most desires is the confidence born of...

Soviet Union

Soviet Union   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,266 words

...in the ‘rehabilitation’ of many of the dead, and the release of the living from labour camps or exile in Siberia. Alexander Fadeyev , secretary of the Writers' Union, feared the denunciations of returning exiles and shot himself. The ‘rehabilitation’ had its effect on the theatrical repertoire: Shvarts's The Dragon was allowed performance in 1962 , as were his other plays; Bulgakov's The White Guard ( The Days of the Turbins ) was revived, and his Flight performed for the first time; Nikolai Akimov ( 1901–68 ) directed Sukhovo-Kobylin's The...

Yiddish theatre

Yiddish theatre   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,035 words

...respect throughout the world and were often at the forefront of the theatrical avant-garde . Among the most influential were Dovid Herman's Vilna troupe, best known for its 1920 première of Ansky 's The Dybbuk , which toured throughout the Yiddish-speaking world between 1916 and 1924 ; and the Moscow State Yiddish Art Theatre or GOSET, founded in 1919 under the direction of Alexander Granovsky , the most influential of some 20 state-subsidized Yiddish theatres in the nascent Soviet Union. Both these companies, together with the Hebrew-speaking ...

Gorky, Maxim

Gorky, Maxim (28 March 1868)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
831 words

...in Britain with what became a string of seven Royal Shakespeare Company productions, the first four directed by David Jones . Irene slatter F. M. Borras , Maxim Gorky the Writer (1967) Gerhard E. Habermann , Maxim Gorky , trans. E. Shlans and Frederick Ungar (1971) Nina Gourfinkel , Gorky , trans. A. Flashbach (1975) Dan Levin , Stormy Petrel: The Life and Work of Maxim Gorky (1965) Alexander Ovcharenko , Maxim Gorky and the Literary Quests of the Twentieth Century ...

costume design

costume design   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,788 words

...to control the ‘look’ of the play. It is not just a case of making drawings that the designer and the director are happy with. The clothes are an extension of the character that the actor has created. The designer is working with vital, constantly changing human beings who will have definite ideas and prejudices about their appearance. The designer has to be aware of these human feelings, and, in order to get the design on stage intact, has to exude a great deal of confidence in the design and the actor's physical appearance as cast for the character. Once...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,482 words

...‘hypercitation’. Fanny & Alexander regains the pleasure of words and voices, staging radio-drama versions of Shakespeare; choosing to work with traditional texts, they free themselves from the constraint of giving primacy to storytelling, enabling themselves to deepen their analysis and explore the relationships between the text and other texts and the contemporary scene. Lenz-Rifrazioni affirms the romantic ‘impossibility to represent’, working with actors with mental illness, by this means reaffirming the body-rite of the actor as original ‘locus’ of...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,422 words

...for the Tribune from 1865 to 1909 . Sadly, with the rise of realism in the 1880s and the coming of Ibsen shortly thereafter he became increasingly backward-looking, shrill and vituperative. A truly new and fine school of American critics did not appear on the scene until shortly before the First World War. But most critics, conservative or progressive, did welcome one play as a harbinger of greater things to come. That play was William Vaughn Moody 's The Great Divide , which was produced in 1906 and which powerfully and poetically dramatized the...

Henry V

Henry V   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...are horrified that the French have killed the English boys who were guarding the camp. Fluellen praises Harry, proud that the King was born in Monmouth, and makes a far-fetched comparison between Harry and Alexander the Great, likening Alexander’s killing of his friend Cleitus to Harry’s rejection of Falstaff. The King, angry to have heard of the slaughter of the boys, receives Montjoy, who concedes defeat. Fluellen congratulates the King for living up to the example of his ancestors and for being proud to be Welsh: heralds go to count the dead. Harry speaks...

Love’s Labour’s Lost

Love’s Labour’s Lost   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,517 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Pompey the Great, Nathaniel (who forgets his words) plays Alexander the Great, Mote plays the infant Hercules strangling snakes in his cradle, but Holofernes’ performance as Judas Maccabeus is dashed by heckling. Armado appears as Hector, and is even more dashed by Costard’s public claim that Jaquenetta is two months’ pregnant by him: the two nearly come to blows, but at this point the entertainment is interrupted by the coming of a messenger, Mercadé. He brings the news that the Princess’s father has died. The women at last listen seriously to the mens’...

The Two Gentlemen of Verona

The Two Gentlemen of Verona   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,682 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...subsequent critics (such as Alexander Leggatt ) have been less inclined to regard all an audience’s laughs at the central characters’ expense as unintended by Shakespeare, the notion that certain figures in the play (notably Julia) are fatally out of drawing with the play’s Lylyan genre remains a prevalent one in recent discussions. Stage history: The Folio’s text may suggest that the play was still in use by Shakespeare’s company as late as 1606 , but since the Renaissance it has been one of his least successful plays in the theatre: in England only ...

All Is True

All Is True   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the sometimes cosmetic alteration of their sequence. Despite the impression given by the play, Queen Catherine was still alive when Princess Elizabeth was born (hence the Catholic view that she was illegitimate), and despite the impression of an achieved harmony at the play’s close, Cranmer’s troubles with the Council, dramatized in 5.1–2, still lay seven years ahead when she was christened. Synopsis: A prologue promises a serious play which will depict the abrupt falls of great men. 1.1 The Duke of Norfolk tells the Duke of Buckingham about the...

King Lear

King Lear   Reference library

Stanley Wells and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,801 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that the 1608 quarto represents the play as Shakespeare first wrote it, and the Folio a substantial revision, cutting some 300 lines and adding about 100, and with many other variations. The Oxford editors first disentangled the two texts under their original printed titles of The History and The Tragedy of King Lear . The synopsis given below is based on the History but indicates major variations in the Tragedy . Sources: Lear’s story had often been told and Shakespeare appears to have known several versions. He treats it with great freedom,...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...before the Lady’s maid warns him not to drink the wine which the Lady always offers her suitors before bed, which she drugs: he is thus enabled to win her. As in the play, the Jew is foiled in his attempt to exact a pound of flesh from the defaulting merchant. Shakespeare knew the pound of flesh story from other sources too, one of which, Alexander Silvayn ’s The Orator (translated in 1596 ), influenced his own trial scene. In rewriting the story of Giannetto as that of Bassanio, Shakespeare replaced the seduction test with the choice of the three...

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