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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Atossa

Atossa   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough ( 1660–1744 ), is said to be intended under this name by Alexander Pope ( Moral Essays , ii ( 1731–5 )). Her friend, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , is called sappho . The Duchess of Buckingham has also been suggested for Atossa. The name was originally that of the daughter of cyrus , king of Persia, in the 6th century bc . She was successively the wife of her brother Cambyses , of the Magdian Smerdis, and of darius the Great, by whom she bore xerxes...

Atticus

Atticus   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...Roman scholar and master of Greek, publisher and patron of the arts ( 110–32 bc ). His taste and judgement were so highly thought of that even cicero submitted several of his treatises to him. Atticus Finch See finch . Christian Atticus, The Reginald Heber ( 1783–1826 ), bishop of Calcutta, a great hymn writer. English Atticus, The Joseph Addison ( 1672–1719 ), so called by Alexander Pope ( Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot , 1735 ) because of his refined taste and philosophical mind. Irish Atticus, The George Faulkner ( 1700–75 ), bookseller, publisher and...

Nickname

Nickname   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...nicknames alluding to their appearance, attributes or achievements. They include the following: alexander the great : Alexander III ( 356–323 bc ), king of Macedon Alexander the Liberator: Alexander II ( 1818–81 ), tsar of Russia Alfonso the Astronomer: Alfonso X ( 1221–84 ), king of León and Castile Alfonso the Battler: Alfonso I ( 1073–1134 ), king of Aragon and Navarre Alfonso the Magnanimous: Alfonso V ( 1396–1458 ), king of León, Castile and Sicily alfred the great : Alfred ( 849–99 ), king of Wessex barbarossa : Frederick I ( 1122–90 ),...

Dog

Dog   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

... ( under spain ) . Dog, The diogenes ( 412–323 BC). When Alexander the Great of Macedon went to see Diogenes he supposedly introduced himself with these words: ‘I am Alexander, surnamed the Great,’ to which the philosopher replied: ‘And I am Diogenes, surnamed the Dog.’ The Athenians raised to his memory a pillar of Parian marble, surmounted by a dog. See also cynic . Dog-and-pony show Derogatory US slang for an elaborate formal public occasion, especially a public presentation, as for a political party’s new manifesto. The allusion is to a travelling...

Letter

Letter   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...of safe conduct A writ under the great seal , guaranteeing safety of passage to the person named in the passport. Letter of the law To keep to the letter of the law is to observe it strictly; to follow out the regulations thoroughly and to avoid breaking them. Letter of Uriah A treacherous letter, implying friendship but in reality a death warrant. And it came to pass in the morning, that David wrote a letter to Joab, and sent it by the hand of Uriah. And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set ye Uriah in the forefront of the hottest battle, and retire ye...

Nine

Nine   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...from 9 am to 5 pm. Nine Worthies, The Nine heroes: three from the Bible, three from the classics and three from romance, or three pagans, three Jews and three Christians, who were bracketed together by writers like the seven wonders of the world . They are usually given as hector , alexander the great and Julius caesar ; joshua , david and Judas maccabaeus ; arthur , charlemagne and godfrey of bouillon . Shakespeare’s Pageant of the Nine Worthies in Love’s Labour’s Lost (V, ii ( 1594 )) has an incomplete list of five, which includes Pompey ...

Durkheim, Émile

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

..., widely considered one of the founders of the field of sociology. He was born in the Lorraine region of France into a family of devout Jews (his father, grandfather and great-grandfather were all rabbis). Although expected to follow the family tradition and go to rabbinical school, Durkheim instead studied at the prestigious college, the École Normale Supérieure (his classmates included Henri Bergson and Jean Jaurès ). He determined to take a scientific approach to the study of society, which put him at odds with the humanist establishment and made...

Durkheim, Émile

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

..., widely considered one of the founders of the field of sociology. He was born in the Lorraine region of France into a family of devout Jews (his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather were all rabbis). Although expected to follow the family tradition and go to rabbinical school, Durkheim instead studied at the prestigious college, the École Normale Supérieure (his classmates included Henri Bergson and Jean Jaurès ). He determined to take a scientific approach to the study of society, which put him at odds with the humanist establishment and made...

Hellenistic

Hellenistic   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...The term designating a period of Greek literature and learning from the death of Alexander the Great ( 323 bce ) to that of Cleopatra ( 31 bce ), when the centre of Greek culture had shifted to the settlements of the eastern Mediterranean, notably the great library of Alexandria . This period includes the poetry of Callimachus and Theocritus , the philosophy of Epicurus and the Stoics, and the scientific achievements of Aristarchus , Archimedes , and Euclid ( see also alexandrianism ). A Hellenist is a student or admirer of Greek...

smart

smart   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2010

...look smart be quick. chiefly British smart alec ( or aleck) a person considered irritating because they know a great deal or always have a clever answer to a question. From the male personal name Alec , a short form of Alexander...

cut

cut   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2010

.... cut it fine: see fine . cut the Gordian knot solve or remove a problem in a direct or forceful way, rejecting gentler or more indirect methods. The knot referred to is that with which Gordius, king of ancient Phrygia (in Asia Minor), fastened the yoke of his wagon to the pole. Its complexity was such that it gave rise to the legend that whoever could undo it would become the ruler of Asia. When Alexander the Great passed that way en route to conquer the East he is said simply to have severed the knot with his sword. cut it out used to ask...

Thais

Thais   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2006

...Athenian courtesan who is said to have caused Alexander the Great to set fire to Persepolis...

Thalestris

Thalestris   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2006

...name of a legendary queen of the Amazons, who is said to have met Alexander the Great on the border of...

Seleucid

Seleucid   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2006

...a member of a dynasty ruling over Syria and a great part of western Asia from 311 to 65 bc . Its capital was at Antioch. The name comes from Seleucus Nicator (the founder, one of Alexander the Great's ...

Ammon

Ammon   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2006

...Greek and Roman form of the name of the Egyptian god Amun . Ammon's son is an epithet of Alexander the Great , from the story in Plutarch of Alexander's visit to the temple of Ammon in Egypt, where he was greeted by the high priest as the son of the...

Bucephalus

Bucephalus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2006

...the favourite horse of Alexander the Great, who tamed the horse as a boy and took it with him on his campaigns until its death, after a battle, in 326 bc . The name in Greek means literally...

Darius

Darius   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2006

...( 550–486 bc ), king of Persia 521–486 bc , known as Darius the Great . He divided the empire into provinces, governed by satraps, developed commerce, built a network of roads, and connected the Nile with the Red Sea by canal. After a revolt by the Greek cities in Ionia he invaded Greece but was defeated at Marathon . Darius was also the name of the last Achaemenid king of Persia ( 553–330 bc ), defeated and dethroned by Alexander the Great ( see Alexander...

Diadochi

Diadochi   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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2006

...the six Macedonian generals of Alexander the Great (Antigonus, Antipater, Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus), among whom his empire was eventually divided after his death in 323 bc . The word comes from Greek diadokhoi ...

Alexander

Alexander 1   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2006

... 1 ( 356–323 bc ), king of Macedon 336–323 , son of Philip II ; known as Alexander the Great . He conquered Persia, Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Bactria, and the Punjab; in Egypt he founded the city of Alexandria. According to Plutarch, Alexander wept when he was told that there were an infinite number of worlds, saying, ‘Is it not worthy of tears that, when the number of worlds is infinite, we have not yet become lords of a single one?’ After his death from a fever at Babylon his empire quickly fell apart, but he became a model for subsequent...

Gordium

Gordium   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2006

...(now NW Turkey), the capital of Phrygia in the 8th and 9th centuries bc . According to legend the city was founded by Gordius, who tied the knot cut by Alexander the Great during his expedition of 334 bc . cut the Gordian knot solve or remove a problem in a direct or forceful way, rejecting gentler or more indirect methods. The expression comes from the legend that Gordius , king of Gordium, tied an intricate knot and prophesied that whoever untied it would become the ruler of Asia. It was cut through with a sword by Alexander the Great...

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