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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Lee, Nathaniel

Lee, Nathaniel (1649?–1692)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

...Hannibal's Overthrow ( 1675 ) Drama Gloriana; or, The Court of Augustus Caesar ( 1676 ) Drama The Rival Queens; or, The Death of Alexander the Great ( 1677 ) Drama Mithridates King of Pontus ( 1678 ) Drama Caesar Borgia Son of Pope Alexander the Sixth ( 1679 ) Drama Lucius Junius Brutus, Father of his Country ( 1680 ) Drama Theodosius; or, The Force of Love ( 1680 ) Drama The Princess of Cleve ( 1680–81 ) Drama Constantine the Great ( 1683 ) Drama The Massacre of Paris ( 1689 ) Drama On the Death of Mrs Behn ( 1689 ) ...

Racine, Jean

Racine, Jean (1639–1699)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

...Jean ( 1639–1699 ) French dramatist and poet La Thébaïde; ou Les Frères ennemis [‘The Thebaid; or, The Enemy Brothers’] ( 1664 ) Drama Alexander the Great [ Alexandre le grand ] ( 1665 ) Drama Andromache [ Andromaque ] ( 1667 ) Drama The Litigants [ Les Plaideurs ] ( 1668 ) Drama Britannicus ( 1669 ) Drama Bérénice ( 1670 ) Drama Bajazet ( 1672 ) Drama Mithridates [ Mithridate ] ( 1673 ) Drama Iphigénie ( 1675 ) Drama Phaedrus and Hippolytus [ Phèdre et Hippolyte ] ( 1677 ) ...

Alexander, Sir William, Earl of Stirling

Alexander, Sir William, Earl of Stirling (1567?–1640)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

..., Sir William, Earl of Stirling ( 1567?–1640 ) Scottish poet The Tragedy of Darius ( 1603 ) Drama Aurora ( 1604 ) Poetry The Monarchick Tragedies ( 1604 ) Drama A Paraenesis to the Prince ( 1604 ) Poetry An Elegy on the Death of Prince Henry ( 1612 ) Poetry Doomsday ; or, The Great Day of the Lord's Judgement ( 1614 ) Poetry An Encouragement to Colonies ( 1624 ) Non-Fiction Recreations with the Muses ( 1637 ) ...

Nicolson, Nigel

Nicolson, Nigel (1917–2004)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

...The Grenadier Guards in the War of 1939–1945 [with Patrick Forbes ] ( 1949 ) Non-Fiction Lord of the Isles ( 1960 ) Non-Fiction Great Houses of Britain ( 1965 ) Non-Fiction Great Houses of the Western World ( 1968 ) Non-Fiction Alex: The Life of Field Marshal Earl Alexander of Tunis ( 1973 ) Non-Fiction Portrait of a Marriage ( 1973 ) Non-Fiction The Himalayas ( 1975 ) Non-Fiction Mary Curzon ( 1977 ) Non-Fiction Napoleon 1812 ( 1985 ) Non-Fiction Two Roads to Dodge City [with Adam Nicolson ] ( 1986 ) Non-Fiction The...

Raphael, Frederic [Michael]

Raphael, Frederic [Michael] (1931– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

... ( 1986 ) Fiction Short Stories After the War ( 1988 ) Fiction The Hidden I ( 1990 ) Fiction A Double Life ( 1993 ) Fiction The Latin Lover, and Other Stories ( 1994 ) Fiction Short Stories Old Scores ( 1995 ) Fiction The Necessity of Anti-Semitism ( 1997 ) Non-Fiction Popper [The Great Philosophers series] ( 1997 ) Non-Fiction Coast to Coast [screenplay] ( 1999 ) Drama All His Sons ( 1999 ) Fiction Short Stories Eyes Wide Open ( 1999 ) Non-Fiction Personal Terms ( 2001 ) Non-Fiction The Benefit of Doubt ( 2003 ) Non-Fiction A...

Patchen, Kenneth

Patchen, Kenneth (1911#x2013;72)   Reference library

Martin Seymour-Smith

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Niles, Ohio. After a short education at Alexander Meiklejohn ’s Experimental University of Wisconsin, where he distinguished himself as an athlete, Patchen did a variety of menial jobs, until Random House published his first collection of poems, Before the Brave ( 1936 ), after which he was taken up as a leftist and rebel. He thereafter wrote poetry prolifically, but never managed to gain any real control over his work, which was ‘furious’, sometimes powerful, and increasingly prophetic in tone, in the manner of the poet who most influenced him, William...

Cameron, (John) Norman

Cameron, (John) Norman (1905–53)   Reference library

Julian Symons

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to have been the inventor of the expression ‘Night Starvation’ , a condition curable by taking Horlicks, and he wrote for the * Graves - * Riding magazine Epilogue an article on ‘The Fairy-Tale Element in Advertising’ . In the Second World War he worked with a small group that included the film director Alexander Mackendrick and the literary editor T. R. Fyvel , producing political propaganda. He married three times, was a hard drinker, and became a Roman Catholic convert two years before his death. The Winter House ( 1935 ) was the only original...

Frost, Robert

Frost, Robert (1874–1963)   Reference library

William Pritchard

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,036 words

...America, Frost purchased a farm in Franconia, New Hampshire (he would purchase a number of farms over the course of his life) and then, at the behest of President Alexander Meiklejohn , joined the faculty of Amherst College in Massachusetts. Frost was later to teach at the University of Michigan and at Dartmouth College, but his relationship to Amherst (sometimes a troubled one) was the most significant educational alliance he formed. Meanwhile he had begun the practice of reading his poems aloud—or rather, ‘saying’ them, as he liked to put it—at public...

Cacophony

Cacophony   Reference library

T. Carper

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...sound”) . The opposite of euphony . Harsh and discordant or dissonant sound, used particularly in dramatic works and poetry to create tension, to express a speaker’s rage or indignation, or to evoke other stressful emotions for readers, performers, and their audiences. In his Essay on Criticism , Alexander Pope employs cacophony to show how “The Sound must seem an Eccho to the Sense” when he writes, “But when loud Surges lash the sounding Shore, / The hoarse, rough Verse shou’d like the Torrent roar” (365, 368–69). It bears noting that what the words are...

Broken Rhyme

Broken Rhyme   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and J. Croft

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... enjambment . Both rely on visual form: for all the “breaking,” the binding of the syllables within the broken word is, in fact, stronger than the line end, generating the tension that characterizes each technique. In Lord Byron, some instances of broken rhyme also meet the criteria for mosaic rhyme or split rhyme, in that the rhyme is achieved not by pairing two words but rather by pairing one word with multiple words: “Start not! Still chaster reader—she’ll be nice hence - / Forward, and there is no great cause to quake; / This liberty is a poetic ...

Syllepsis

Syllepsis   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...[at the target, a pigeon] with gaze and arrow alike extended). Syllepsis is rare in the It. and Fr. sonneteers, but Shakespeare makes it a major verbal device for double entendre both witty and serious, as at Othello 4.1.34 ff., where Iago plays on the senses of “lie,” in order to inflame Othello, and all by implication. Alexander Pope uses syllepsis frequently: “Here thou, great Anna! whom three realms obey, / Dost sometimes counsel take—and sometimes tea”; “Or stain her honour, or her new brocade”; “Or lose her heart, or necklace, at a ball” ( The Rape...

Ode

Ode   Reference library

S. F. Fogle and P. H. Fry

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,348 words

...regular. With the appearance in 1749 of a scholarly trans. of Pindar by Gilbert West , the fashion for Cowleyan Pindarics died away. With John Dryden begin the great formal odes of the 18th c.: first the “Ode to the Memory of Mrs. Anne Killigrew ” and then, marking the reunion of formal verse and music, the “Song for St. Cecilia’s Day” and “Alexander’s Feast.” St. Cecilia’s Day odes by many authors had long been written, but the trad. ended with “Alexander’s Feast.” For the 18th c., the ode was the perfect means of expressing the sublime . Using ...

Ottava Rima

Ottava Rima   Reference library

A. Preminger, C. Kleinhenz, T.V.F. Brogan., and J. McGann

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...by Alexander Pushkin on the model of Byron. The work of the great masters of the stanza—Boccaccio, Pulci, Ariosto, Byron—suggests that ottava rima is most suited to work of a varied nature, blending serious, comic, and satiric attitudes and mingling narrative and discursive modes. Referring to Pulci, Byron calls it “the half-serious rhyme” ( Don Juan 4.6). Its accumulation of rhyme, reaching a precarious crescendo with the third repetition, prepares the reader for the neatsummation, the acute observation, or the epigrammatic twist that comes with the final...

Spontaneity

Spontaneity   Reference library

J. L. Mahoney and C. Donaldson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...to the poet being “lifted up with the vigour of his own inventions,” Sidney ultimately prioritizes moral instruction as the task of true poetry. Seventeenth-c. empirical philosophy, notably in Thomas Hobbes and John Locke , opposes the innateness of emotional awareness to acquired knowledge and skill, stressing the need to control wit and invention through reason and judgment. Given the influence of these ideas on the Enlightenment, spontaneity was not esp. prized in the 18th c.; witness Alexander Pope ’s poetry and Samuel Johnson ’s crit. The Eng....

Minimalism

Minimalism   Reference library

M. Perloff

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

..., New Directions in Music (1981) ; M. Perloff , “Preface,” Contemporary Poets , 3d ed. (1985) ; E. Brater , Beyond Minimalism (1987) ; R. Creeley , Collected Essays of Robert Creeley (1989) ; B. Grumman , “Mnmlst Poetry: Unacclaimed but Flourishing,” (1997) ; K. Alexander , “The Abstract Minimalist Poetry of Robert Lax,” Interval(l)es 1.1 (2004) ; A. Saroyan , Complete Minimal Poems (2007). M....

Phonestheme

Phonestheme   Reference library

P. G. Adams and D. Veraldi

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...melancholy, not just with E. A. Poe in the theory about “nevermore” and throughout “Lenore” but with Alexander Pope in “Eloisa” and “Elegy to … an Unfortunate Lady” and with Alfred, Lord Tennyson in “Ballad of Oriana” and the song of “The Dying Swan,” whose voice “With a music strange and manifold / Flow’d forth on a carol free and bold.” The Am.-Eng. low mid-vowel of dull and blood is, David I. Masson claims, Wilfred Owen ’s “great discovery in assonance” and presents “the sensuous and spiritual desert of war,” but Masson also states that...

Ploce

Ploce   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and M. Martin

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Alexander Pope ’s “Where Wigs with Wigs, with Sword-knots Sword-knots strive, / Beaus banish Beaus, and Coaches Coaches drive” ( The Rape of the Lock 101–2). Examples of epizeuxis are Shakespeare’s “Never, never, never, never, never” and “Then kill, kill, kill, kill, kill, kill” from King Lear , and “Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow” and “O horror, horror, horror” from Macbeth . Representative examples from the 19th c. include Alfred, Lord Tennyson ’s poem “Break! Break! Break!” and many of G. M. Hopkins ’s poems, e.g., “The Leaden Echo and the...

Heroic Couplet

Heroic Couplet   Reference library

W. B. Piper and S. Cushman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,648 words

...Wasserman , “The Return of the Enjambed Couplet,” ELH 7 (1940) ; Y. Winters , “The Heroic Couplet and Its Recent Revivals,” In Defense of Reason (1943) ; W. C. Brown , The Triumph of Form (1948) ; W. K. Wimsatt , “One Relation of Rhyme to Reason,” The Verbal Icon (1954) ; J. H. Adler , The Reach of Art (1964) ; J. A. Jones , Pope’s Couplet Art (1969) ; W. B. Piper , The Heroic Couplet (1969) ; G. T. Amis , “The Structure of the Augustan Couplet,” Genre 9 (1976) ; H. Carruth , “Three Notes on the Versewriting of Alexander Pope,” ...

Russia, Poetry of

Russia, Poetry of   Reference library

A. Kahn

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
10,027 words

...put the ruler and poet on virtually equal footing. He is the first Rus. poet to use the lang. of natural law in reminding the ruler of limits to autocracy. Derzhavin’s choice of philosophical and political subjects conferred gravitas on the figure of the poet. Yet not all is high seriousness in the period. Numerous poets from the 1730s to the 1770s were adept at song as well as verse tragedy and comedy. Light verse of an ephemeral nature enjoyed a vogue. Alexander Sumarokov ( 1717–1777 ), the director of the Imperial Theatre (and dubbed the Rus. Boileau),...

Ekphrasis

Ekphrasis   Reference library

G. G. Starr

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,310 words

... or with the Ren. trad. of the country house poem . More rarely, ekphraseis may also represent music, as in Thomas Mann ’s Magic Mountain or John Dryden ’s “Alexander’s Feast.” There is a rich variety of ekphrastic description beyond those of works of art, as may be seen in the med. dream vision , the Petrarchan blason of a woman’s beauty, or in emblem poems. Landscape description is one of the more common forms of ekphrasis, and gardens are also a rich subject ( Andrew Marvell ’s “The Garden” is a particularly powerful example, where the last stanza...

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