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Alexander the Great

[Na] Leader of the Macedonians. Born in 356 bc, Alexander was tutored in his early years by Aristotle before succeeding his father Philip as king of Macedonia and the mainland of ...

Macedo

Macedo   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...the Macedonian ( HF 915), Alexander the Great ( see Alisaundre...

Appelles

Appelles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...Apelles , according to the 12th-c. Alexandreis of Walter of Chatillon, a legendary Jewish sculptor who made an elaborate tomb for Darius ( Daryus (1) ). He is cited as a great artist (and it is possible that he has been conflated with the historical Greek painter Apelles, a favourite of Alexander the Great). The Wife of Bath refers to him (III.499), saying that her fourth husband's tomb is less ‘curyus’ than the one he made so ‘subtilly’; and he appears (with Pigmalion and Zanzis (1) ) in Nature's list of the great artists of the ancient world, who are...

Alisandre Macedo

Alisandre Macedo   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...), Alysaunder Macedo , Alexander Macedo , Alixandre Macedo . Alexander the Great ( 356–323 bc ) of Macedon ( Macedoyne ), son of Philip II and Olympias, was educated by Aristotle , and soon showed himself to be a brilliant military commander. He invaded Asia, conquering Persia, Syria, and Egypt. His campaigns took him as far as what is now Samarkand and Afghanistan, and finally India; he had hoped to reach the Ganges, and what he thought to be the end of the world, but his men refused. After reaching the delta of the Indus in 325 , he set off...

Alisandre

Alisandre   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...a city on the north coast of Egypt ( Egypte ), founded by Alexander the Great in 331 bc . It was the capital of the Ptolomies ( see Tholome (2) ) and a great intellectual centre of the Hellenistic world, and later of Eastern Christianity (legend has it that St Mark , its first bishop, was martyred there; and St Catherine of Alexandria who was probably unhistorical, was widely venerated). It declined in size and importance after its capture by the Arabs. It was known to the medieval West because of its earlier illustrious history, and through the ...

Scithia

Scithia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

..., Scythia , the land of the Scythians, a nomadic Indo-European people famed for archery and horsemanship. After being driven out of Asia Minor by the Medes they established kingdoms in southern Russia which traded with Greek cities on the Black Sea. About the 2nd c. bc they were forced to move into the Crimea. They fought with success against the Persians and against the Macedonian troops of Alexander the Great ( Alisaundre ). In Chaucer ‘the aspre [harsh] folk of Cithe’ are overcome by Theseus , a campaign referred to both in The Knight's Tale ...

Aristotle

Aristotle (384–322 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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... 342 he became tutor to the future Alexander the Great . In 335 he returned to Athens, where he spent twelve years as head of a school he set up in the Lyceum. Anti-Macedonian feeling after the death of Alexander led him to retreat to Chalcis in 323 , and there he died a year later. Aristotle's principal writings were: (1) the Organon , a series of logical treatises; (2) writings on the physical sciences, including the Physics and On the Heavens ; (3) several long biological works; (4) treatises on psychology; (5) the Metaphysics ; (6) ...

death

death   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...in the Middle Ages was often a more public affair than it is in the modern world. The great plagues of the 14th c. produced some gruesome scenes, and the sight of a public execution was a common one (cf. MLT II.645–7). Yet it is a dangerous oversimplification to say that the later Middle Ages were ‘obsessed’ with death. Nor was there a single medieval attitude to death. The Christian ascetic tradition of the contempt of the world ( contemptus mundi ) produced penitential works which elaborated the idea that the body is the ‘food of worms’, and this and...

romance

romance   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...the central theme. Noble knights are usually noble lovers as well as great warriors. Women, often left on the margin in earlier epics, take on in the romance a central role, as inspirers or as testers. Knights have to prove themselves through the many adventures they meet on their quests. Generally the heroes are successful, and their story has a happy end, but there are a number of tragic romances, notably those which deal with the death of Arthur, or Alexander , or the story of Tristram . The literary quality ranges from the highly sophisticated to the...

law

law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...law and written law is most marked in the kinds of legal records that each has bequeathed us. The common lawyers had few theoretical tracts (and the best, Bracton, has been heavily influenced by the civilians), while the records of their actual proceedings are terse, uninformative, and often inconclusive, consisting mostly of writs and enrolments reduced to the lowest level of bureaucratic formalism. Many an apparent eyewitness account (such as that, given in the Chaucer Life Records ( LR 357–8), concerning Alexander Broadbred found guilty of manslaughter...

Spaigne

Spaigne   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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2005

...composed in the gentle Galician dialect, as were a large number of anonymous love poems, showing Provençal influence, dedicated to peasant girls, or to their laments for their absent lovers. In the mid-13th c., two anonymous Spanish verse translations were made of classical ‘novels’, The Book of Apollonius ( Appollonius ) and that of Alexander ( Alysaundre ), whilst towards the end, a characteristic Spanish prose style was being forged in Toledo for the translation of scholarly works from the Hebrew, Arabic, and Latin. In this period the major literary...

Macedo

Macedo  

The Macedonian (HF 915), Alexander the Great (see Alisaundre).
Alisandre

Alisandre  

Alexandria, a city on the north coast of Egypt (Egypte), founded by Alexander the Great in 331 bc. It was the capital of the Ptolomies (see Tholome (2)) and a ...
Alisandre Macedo

Alisandre Macedo  

Alexander the Great (356–323 bc) of Macedon (Macedoyne), son of Philip II and Olympias, was educated by Aristotle, and soon showed himself to be a brilliant military commander. He invaded ...
Secreta Secretorum

Secreta Secretorum  

A compendium of pronouncements on political and ethical matters. Written in Syriac in the 8th cent. ad and claiming to be advice from Aristotle to Alexander. It reached Europe through Arabic and ...
drunkenness

drunkenness  

Intoxication resulting from imbibing an excess of alcohol. It is an offence contrary to s 12 of the Licensing Act 1872 to be drunk in a public place.
gesture

gesture  

A meaningful body movement, usually of the hand or head, though the term can include facial expression and expressive movements of the whole body. The main kinds of gestures are manual ones, ...

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